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The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for controlled pollination of Araucaria angustifolia, aiming
at the genetic improvement of the species and increased yield of pine nuts through management with supplemental pollination. A methodology of controlled pollination was developed in which several experiments were carried out in 2003-2005 period. The effects of the following parameters were evaluated: controlled pollination, amount of pollen applied per female strobilus, time of pollination, and development stage of the female strobilus during pollination on the number of pine nuts yielded per pine cone. A single controlled pollination procedure results in low yield of fully filled pine nuts, and pollination at later development stages of the female strobilus results in high yields of fully filled pine nuts per pine cone. Controlled pollination in A. angustifolia proved effective for pine nut production and its application in oriented breeding procedures will enable breeding that up until now was considered impossible in nature on account of the considerable distance between the parent plants. Controlled pollination performed twice in
female strobili more than 30 mm in diameter does increase the yield of pine nuts per pine cone.