CERNE <p>Cerne is a journal edited by the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, which quarterly publishes original articles that represent relevant contribution to Forestry Science development (Forest ecology, Forest Management, Silviculture, Technology of Forest Products).</p> <p>Submitted manuscripts must be written in English, be original, and be in accordance with the journal's standards and not be submitted for publication elsewhere. Its content (data, ideas, opinions and concepts) is the sole responsibility of the author(s). When necessary, it must be attested that the research in question was approved by the Ethics and Biosafety Committee of the institution to which the author responsible for the manuscript submission is linked to.</p> <p>By submitting the article, the authors agree that the copyright of the same is automatically transferred to the Journal Cerne. Authors can use the article after publication, without the prior permission of Cerne, as long as publication credit is given to the Journal.</p> en-US Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: a) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication (original form ); b ) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post and share their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on their website). (Lucas Rezende Gomide) (Danielle Aparecida Alcântara) Thu, 04 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0300 OJS 60 FACTORS AFFECTING SOME PROPERTIES ON SURFACE OF THERMOWOOD MATERIAL APPLIED WITH WATER-BASED VARNISHES MODIFED WITH NANOPARTICLES <p><strong>Background:</strong> The aim of this study is to determine the surface roughness and adhesion strength of water-based varnishes modified with nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) and hollow ceramic spherical (HCS) against accelerated UV aging effect in some ThermoWood materials. For this purpose, American ash (<em>Fraxinus americana</em>) and scotch pine (<em>Pinus sylvestris Lipsky</em>) wood were heat treated at a temperature of 190 °C for 1.5 hours and 212 °C for 2 hours. The heat-treated samples were applied with two-component water-based varnishes, with D70 - D99 commercial codes, modified with 1%, 3% and 5% ZnO and HCS nanoparticles individually then these samples were subjected to accelerated aging for 240 hours according to ASTM G154. The surface roughness of varnish layers was determined by TS 6956 EN ISO 4287/A1 and surface adhesion strength by ASTM D4541 principles.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that the nanoparticles generally decreased the surface roughness and adhesion strength in water based varnishes. But surface roughness increased in additives of 5% HCS in D99 and 1% ZnO in D70. Also adhesion strength increased in additives of 5% ZnO and 1% and 5% HCS in D70.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The layer properties of water-based varnishes can be improved with ZnO and HCS nanoparticles against aging effects.</p> Mehmet Karamanoğlu, Haci İsmail Kesik Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 25 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0300 AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH ON THE RENEWABLE HYBRID BARRIER: COMBINED USE OF WOOD AND SAND <p>Wooden materials have been among the basic materials used in many different areas due to some advantages throughout the history. Roadside barriers, which are called passive safety structures, can be produced with different materials such as wood, steel, concrete, and plastic. In this study, Renewable Hybrid Barriers (RHB), a new type of barrier that is used wood in terms of aesthetics, renewability, high shock resistance, and used sand in terms of impact absorption capacity and low cost, produced by taking into account some of the disadvantages of other barrier types. These barriers are planned to be used especially in historical/touristic areas, scenic roads, and in urban areas as urban furniture. Real-time crash tests in accordance with EN 1317 (Road Restraint Systems) standard require high cost and long time, therefore the pendulum crash test mechanism, which is frequently used in the literature, was manufactured and experiments were carried out. The results reveal that the RHBs which timbers 2 cm in thickness and sand are used together, are sufficient and suitable in terms of both cost and necessary safety criteria. It was observed that impregnation and heat treatment applications do not have a considerable negative effect on the performance of RHBs. From this point of view, it can be said that RHBs are suitable for outdoor conditions. This study can serve as the basis for the next step, real-time real crash tests. Since the study includes an interdisciplinary subject, it is thought that it will inspire different studies.</p> Halil Ibrahim Yumrutas, Emre Birinci, Huseyin Yorur, Ali Osman Atahan Copyright (c) 2021 Fri, 13 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0300 CELLULOSE NANOSTRUCTURED FILMS FROM PRETREATED AÇAI MESOCARP FIBERS: PHYSICAL, BARRIER, AND TENSILE PERFORMANCE <p><strong>Background: </strong>During de-pulping of açai (Euterpe oleracea) for juice production in the Amazonia, large amounts of fibrous waste are daily discarded, a promising substrate for production of high-value cellulose nanofibrils. Therefore, this study sought to evaluate the modifications of açai surface fibers submitted to chemical pretreatment steps and compare the quality of nanostructured films produced with different cycles of mechanical nanofibrillation..</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A 2-hour pretreatment (at 5% of NaOH) followed by two NaOH/H2O2 bleaching steps resulted in fibers with increased length and reduced diameter compared to raw fibers while preserving fiber integrity and cellulose I structure. The increase of fibers’ grinding cycles from 3 (minimum to gel point) to 21 (maximum suspension thickness) resulted in nanofibril films with higher crystallinity properties, uniform thickness, compacted morphology, and smoother surface. Nanofibril films formed after different numbers of passages exhibited similar mechanical strength, but distinct barrier properties.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Açaí waste films produced with fibers submitted to 3 grinding cycles can be recommended for packaging applications that demand easily dissolving, such as instantaneous food. Oppositely, açaí fibers subjected to 21 cycles in grinder provide films suitable for water-resistant packaging, ideal for secondary coatings of papers and paperboards.</p> Dayse Gonzaga Braga, Juliana Livian Lima de Abreu, Marcela Gomes da Silva, Tiago Marcolino de Souza, Matheus Cordazzo Dias, Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli, Cândido Ferreira de Oliveira Neto, Pedro Ivo Cunha Claro, Laércio Gouvêa Gomes, Lina Bufalino Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 03 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0300 RESTORATION POTENTIAL OF EIGHT TREE SPECIES FROM A SEASONALLY DRY TROPICAL FOREST IN SOUTHEAST PIAUÍ, BRAZIL <p><strong>Background:</strong> The conservation and restoration of forest landscapes is an important aspect of sustainable development. In semi-arid regions these practices are difficulted by the harsh climate of these environments, with low precipitation values and prolonged dry seasons. The objective of this study is to identify tree species from the south of the Brazilian state of Piauí that have potential to be used in forest restoration programs.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Data from forest inventory and tree characteristics were used to select eight tree species using target species definition, focusing on species with desirable wood properties, abundance in the study region, favorable dendrometric variables, seed availability, ease of seed germination and seedling growth in nursery and field conditions, among others. These species were then evaluated as candidates for restoration using a framework species approach focusing on the following attributes: (i) 70% or higher seedling survival in the field; (ii) seedling height of 45 cm or taller after the first growing season in the field and (iii) 70% or greater nursery seedling survival.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The species <em>Combretum glaucocarpum, Cenostigma macrophyllum, and Pityrocarpa moniliformis</em> are suitable to be employed in forest restoration programs in the southern region of Piauí, Brazil. Further studies must be carried out to assess the behavior of these and other potential tree species in long term field conditions and under varying silvicultural regimes, a key aspect for forest restoration.</p> Andressa Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Ferraz Filho, Dr., Séfora Gil Gomes de Farias, Dr., Bruna Anair Souto Dias, Dr., Helionai Pereira da Silva Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 28 Jul 2021 00:00:00 -0300 SEASONALLY DRY TROPICAL FOREST TEMPORAL PATTERNS ARE MARKED BY FLORISTIC STABILITY AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES <p>We have aimed to characterize the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTF) dynamic in floristic and structural changes, evaluating changes in dynamic rates and structural attributes such as richness, number of trees and biomass. We have hypothesized the SDTF fragments present the dynamic patterns characterized by temporal fluctuations, describing an instability pattern, in according to the already found for others tropical forests. The work was carried out based on the data of 42 plots of 400 m² in three fragments, measured in 2005 2010, 2015 in the Brazilian Arboreal Caatinga. We evaluated temporal changes in richness, species composition, trees density, biomass and rates of Mortality and Recruitment and Biomass gain and loss using Mixed Generalized Linear Models (GLMM). The results suggest floristic composition stability, but changes in structure and dynamics. There was a density reduction conditioned by constant mortality and by recruitment decrease, and biomass increase due to losses reduction and gain increase. The biomass increase was concentrated in a small set of species that are the most representative of the community temporal patterns. The results are probably related to the community dynamic processes and to the main SDTF characteristics such as climatic seasonality that influences the local ecological processes.</p> Cléber Rodrigo Souza, Alisson Borges Miranda Santos, Vinícius Andrade Maia, Gabriela Gomes Pires de Paula, Nathalle Cristine Alencar Fagundes, Polyanne Aparecida Coelho, Paola Ferreira Santos, Jean Daniel Morel, Paulo Oswaldo Garcia, Rubens Manoel Santos Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Wed, 03 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0300 MINI-CUTTING OF Plathymenia reticulata Benth. WITH MINI-STUMPS CONDUCTED IN SUSPENDED SEED BED AND TUBES <p>This work aimed to evaluate the rooting of mini-cuttings from juvenile materials of <em>Plathymenia reticulata</em> and we hypothesized: (1) keeping propagules under mist chamber for different periods affects the rooting process; (2) the mini-stump management system due to the restriction of the root system affects the production of mini-cuttings and the quality of clonal seedlings. Two experiments were carried out: In the first, 30 days after staking, 40 mini-cuttings were randomly selected for rooting assessment. Then, 50% of the survived mini-cuttings were sent to the greenhouse and the remained were kept in the mist chamber. Every ten days, mini-cuttings from each environment were evaluated for rooting up to 60 days after staking. It’s not necessary more that 30 days in a mist chamber to induce rooting. The highest percentage of rooting was obtained at 50 days of staking. In the second experiment, mini-gardens were set up in suspended seed bed and tubes (280 cm<sup>3</sup>), whose productivity was monitored monthly. The average productivity of all collections of mini-cuttings in suspended seed bed and tubes was of 4.32 and 2.06, respectively, during 270 days of exploration of the mini-gardens. At 120 days after staking, there was no difference in the survival and in the final quality of clonal seedlings produced. However, clonal seedlings from mini-garden in tubes had higher height, leaf area, and number of first-order roots. Regardless of the mini-garden management, the clonal seedling production index was 50%. We can conclude that <em>P.&nbsp;reticulata</em> seedling production via mini-cutting technique is possible.</p> Giovanna Campos Mamede Weiss de Carvalho, David Pessanha Siqueira, Renata de Deus Silva, Maria Kalyane Farias da Silva, Deborah Guerra Barroso Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Thu, 18 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0300 CANOPY RECOVERY FOUR YEARS AFTER LOGGING: A MANAGEMENT STUDY IN A SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN SECONDARY FOREST <p>Understanding forest dynamics after logging is essential to define forest management cycles and intensities. In secondary forest, especially in the Atlantic Forest Domain, these studies are still scarce. Monitoring of the canopy structure after tree harvesting can be performed by hemispherical photographs, where canopy opening is commonly analyzed. This study evaluated changes in canopy opening four years after tree harvesting in a secondary Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil. We used hemispherical photographs to determine the Canopy Openness (CO), Leaf Area Index (LAI), and Diffuse Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Absorbed Radiation (FAPARdif) in eleven permanent plots. We found that harvesting resulted in a momentary increase in canopy opening and light availability in the understory. Four years after harvesting, CO, LAI and FAPARdif recovered or even exceeded the original values of the forest. We observed a significant correlation between CO and number of trees harvested with DBH &gt; 30 cm. Weak correlations were found between these canopy related variables and the logging intensity. In conclusion, we recognized that changes of CO, LAI and FAPARdif after timber harvesting presented short duration. This indicates that the applied logging intensities did not did not exceed the resilience of the forest canopy and it’s recovering a few years later. However, additional studies should be carried out to observe vegetation dynamics, such as species composition, vertical structure, productivity and community stability, in order to improve management schemes of secondary stands in the Atlantic Forest.</p> Janine Kervald Likoski, Alexander Christian Vibrans, Daniel Augusto da Silva, Alfredo Celso Fantini Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Fri, 19 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0300 LEAFLET PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY IN THREE WOODY SPECIES IN DIFFERENTS STRATA OF GALLERY FOREST <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate leaflet morphophysiological characteristics and plasticity index of three woody species in canopy and understory leaves in a gallery forest. Seedlings and adult trees of woody species of <em>Myracrodruon urundeuva</em> Fr. Allemão, C<em>opaifera langsdorffii</em> Desf. and <em>Tapirira guianensis</em> Aubl. were studied. Morphophysiological characteristics analyzed were petiole length (PL) and diameter (PD), leaflet thickness (fresh - FT and dry - DT), specific leaf mass (SLM) and water relative content (WRC). Plasticity index of leaflet traits were calculated by assessing leaf characteristics, between and across species. All morphophysiological characteristics varied within species. The leaflets of canopy trees showed significantly higher values of PL, PD, FT, DT and SLM, in relation to understory leaflets. On the other hand, WRC did not change between adult trees and seedlings, except for <em>T.</em> <em>guianensis</em>. The plasticity index of leaflet characteristics varied significantly within species. Plasticity index of three morphophysiological characteristics (PL, PD and DT) varied between species. PL and PD had the highest plasticity index values across species, whereas WRC had the lowest plasticity. Plasticity index of tree species associates these leaflet morphophysiological traits (PL, PD and DT) with variations in the physical environment between strata of a gallery forest.</p> Jamile dos Santos, Ricardo Antonio Marenco, Wendy Carniello Ferreira, Daniela Pereira Dias Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Fri, 19 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0300 CHANGES ON STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CELLULOSE PULP FIBER INCUBATED FOR DIFFERENT TIMES IN ANAEROBIC DIGESTATE <p>The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of a pre-treatment of microbial-rich digestate (liquid mesophilic anaerobic digestate – AD-supernatant) on the morphology, crystallinity, and thermal stability of cellulose pulp fiber. The six most abundant bacteria in the AD-supernatant were determined by 16S analysis. The bacteria population was comprised mostly of <em>Bacteroides graminisolvens</em> (66%) and <em>Parabacteroides chartae</em> (28%). Enzymatic activity from the bacteria partially removed the amorphous components and increased the crystallinity and crystallite size of the cellulose substrate. The fiber pulp was incubated in AD-supernatant for 5, 10, and 20 days. The X-ray diffraction data provided evidence that the amorphous portion of the cellulose was more readily and quickly hydrolyzed than the crystalline portion. The longest incubation times (20 days) resulted in substantial deconstruction of the cellulose fiber structure and decreased the thermal degradation temperature. The anaerobic digestate is inexpensive and could be used to effectively aid in the pre-treatment of cellulose on large scale transformation processes, e.g. for making biofuels, cellulose micro/nanofiber production or engineered fiber-based materials.</p> Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli, Kevin holtman, Luiz Eduardo Silva, Delilah Wood, Lennard Torres, Tina Williams, Juliano Elvis Oliveira, Alessandra Souza Fonseca, Artur Klamczynski, Gregory Glenn, William Orts Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Wed, 17 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0300 STUDY ON RARE AND ENDANGERED PLANTS UNDER CLIMATE: MAXENT MODELING FOR IDENTIFYING HOT SPOTS IN NORTHWEST CHINA <p>Climate warming has caused substantial changes in spatial and temporal environmental patterns. The&nbsp;study on hot spots of&nbsp;rare and endangered plants in northwest china under predicted climate change provides a scientific reference for the restoration and reconstruction of degraded habitats of rare and endangered plants and the construction and improvement of protection system in northwest China. Based on MaxEnt model, based on 813 effective distribution records and 11 environmental factor variables of rare and endangered plants in northwest china, this study identified the changes of hot spots of rare and endangered plants in northwest china under predicted climate change by using MaxEnt model and ArcGIS software. Comprehensive environmental factor variable contribution rate and knife-cutting method were used to examine and evaluate the important factors affecting the hot spots of rare and endangered plants in northwest china. The appropriate range of environmental factor variables was determined by response curve, and the hot spots and areas threatened by rare and endangered plants in northwest china were determined quantitatively. The results show that: (1) the prediction accuracy of MaxEnt model is high, the working curve area (AUC) of subjects is 0.876, and the total suitable area for potential geographical distribution of rare and endangered plants in northwest china is 137.96×10<sup>4</sup>km<sup>2</sup>, which is mainly located in western and southwestern Xinjiang province, southern Gansu province, sporadic eastern and southern qinghai province, and southern Shaanxi province. (2) the main environmental factors affecting the hot spots of rare and endangered plants in northwest china are altitude, temperature factors (daily range of average temperature and lowest temperature of the coldest month) and precipitation factors (precipitation in the wettest season) (3) in the future four climate change scenarios, with the increase of emission scenarios from low forcing to high forcing, the loss of hot spots of rare and endangered plants in northwest china is the most obvious in Xinjiang province. The increase is most obvious in qinghai province and Gansu province.</p> haoxiang zhao, HUA ZHANG Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Thu, 18 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0300 PULL-OUT STRENGTH OF GLUED-IN GFRP RODS IN TIMBER CONNECTIONS BY USING OF EPOXY RESIN REINFORCED BY NANOPARTICLE <p>This study evaluated the behavior of epoxy resin reinforced by nanoclay at three levels, on the pull-out strength of glued-in GFRP rods in glulam. For this purpose, two rods with three lengths and diameters were inserted at two opposite sides of glulam blocks which were glued by epoxy resin. Samples underwent tensile testing as well as the measurement of their tensile strength and shear strength. The results showed that the strength of bonding increased with the addition of a low amount of nanoclay. Furthermore, the amount of nanoclay, rod length and diameter could not significantly affect simultaneously, the performance and strength of glued-in GFRP rods.</p> Mehrab Madhoushi Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Thu, 18 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0300 RATIOS BETWEEN ABOVEGROUND NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION, LITTERFALL AND CARBON STOCKS IN SCOTS PINE STANDS ON NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE <p>The aim of work was to assess the carbon stocks in the biomass to characterize the intensity of aboveground net production and the amount of litterfall in Scots pine forests of different types in the North-East of the Europe. We estimated biomass and aboveground net primary production of stands using model trees. For vegetation of ground cover biomass and primary production evaluating, we cut off all aboveground organs on an area of 625 cm<sup>2</sup> and removed the first-year parts. Litterfall was collected over 3–6 years using litter traps. Most of the carbon in the biomass of pine forests is concentrated in trees. However, in boggy forests, ground vegetation plays a significant role in carbon stocks, both in absolute and relative values. A high contribution of needles and plants of the ground vegetation to aboveground net primary production (ANPP) was established. In mature pine forests, a significant contribution of stem wood was noted. We provide data on the mass and fractional composition of forest litterfall. Using the data obtained, we calculated the ratio between the carbon fluxes in ANPP/Litterfall and aboveground carbon stocks in the stand biomass. Our values were comparable with similar data calculated via values published in the literature. Therefore we suggest that the relationship of biomass with ANPP and litterfall can be considered as an alternative method for estimating carbon fluxes in forest ecosystems.&nbsp;</p> Andrey Fedorovich Osipov, Ivan Nicolaevich Kutjavin, Kapitolina Stepanovna Bobkova Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0300 DETECTION OF HIGH POTENTIAL AREAS OF PERSIAN OAK DECLINE USING TOPSIS METHOD IN ZAGROS FORESTS, IRAN <p>During the past decade, the phenomenon of Oak decline has affected valuable Zagros Oak Forests in western Iran. <em>Quercus brantii</em> as the most important tree species of these forests has been damaged more than any other species. Many parameters are involved in this phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to identify areas with high potential for decline and determine the most important parameters affecting it. Oak stands in Ilam Province face this problem more than any other area. In this study, using multi-criteria evaluation methods based on <em>Geographic Information System</em> (GIS) - <em>Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution</em> (TOPSIS) method and fuzzy logic, the decline potential of two selected stands in this province was prepared to reveal the high risk areas of decline. The analytical hierarchical process was used to determine the weight of the parameters. The results showed that both selected stands had decline potential at all levels. But Cheghasabz is more at risk than Dalab. Also, socioeconomic parameters and pests and diseases had the greatest effect on Oak decline. These results confirm the need for greater focus of area management on the design of strategic protection plans.</p> Mohammad Javad Moradi, Hadi Kiadaliri, Sasan Babaie Kafaky, Hossein Bakhoda Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Mon, 22 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0300 POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TWO LYNX SPECIES IN EUROPE UNDER PALEOCLIMATOLOGICAL SCENARIOS AND ANTHROPOGENIC CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS <p>Today's European fauna was formed under the influence of Paleoclimatic climate change. The distribution of two wild cat species of Europe, <em>Lynx pardinus</em> and <em>Lynx lynx</em>, 22000 and 6000 years ago were determined by the MaxEnt method in relation to the Paleoclimtological scenarios (LGM and Mid-Holocene) and fossil records. It was determined that these two wild cats were distributed according to preys on which they specialized, rather than the climate change that lasted for thousands of years. It was observed that <em>Lynx Pardinus</em>, which specialized only on European rabbit hunting, could not expand its distribution from past to present. <em>Lynx lynx</em>, on the other hand, expanded its distribution throughout the Palearctic region and adapted to different ecosystem varieties by means of its specialization on many preys from mouse to moose. Based on the model results created with the help of MaxEnt which considers anthropogenic climate change scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 2070) and today's data of two existing Lynx species, suitable habitats for<em> L.pardinus </em>will decrease and suitable habitats will emerge in Western France. <em>L.lynx</em>, on the other hand, will limit its wide distribution to the North, except for the Alps, the Carpathians and the Caucasus, which will serve as refugial areas. These results therefore requires that measurements such as reducing climate change impacts over the next 50 years, protecting existing and potential habitats in advance, and reducing anthropogenic impact should be enforced.</p> Akın KIRAÇ Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0300 GENETIC CONTROL OF PRODUCTIVITY AND GENOTYPES BY ENVIRONMENTS INTERACTION FOR Eucalyptus dorrigoensis IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL <p>This study aimed to estimate the genetic parameters and assess the Genotype x Environment interaction for two <em>Eucalyptus dorrigoensis </em>progeny tests at 2.5 years of age. Both tests were established with single tree plots in Sertão Santana and Lavras do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Each test contained 98 progenies, with five checks. The evaluated traits were diameter at breast high (DBH), total height (H), volume (Vol), and mean annual increment (MAI). For Sertão Santana, the narrow sense heritability ranged from 0.46 (H) to 0.64 (Vol/MAI) and for Lavras do Sul it ranged from 0.38 (H) to 0.47 (Vol/MAI). The CV<em><sub>g</sub></em>% values varied from 8.12% (H) to 26.06% (Vol/MAI). Greatest genetic correlation occurred between DBH and MAI, reaching 0.98. The G <em>x</em> E interaction was significant and mostly complex (78.70%). The best genetic materials for each environment, along with the most stable genetic materials, were identified.</p> Leonardo Vannucchi Munhoz, Osmarino Pires dos Santos, Brigida Maria dos Reis Teixeira Valente, Evandro Vagner Tambarussi Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Thu, 15 Apr 2021 00:00:00 -0300 STRUCTURAL HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF A HISTORICAL BUILDING BY USING IN SITU STRESS WAVE NDT: A CASE STUDY IN IRAN <p>Many historical buildings in Iran need to be protected, especially for cultural and tourism purposes. In many of these buildings, wood is used as a structural element in features such as beam, pile, roof and floor systems. For this purpose, the architectural features of a building located in Gorgan (Northern part of Iran) and characterisation of faults, in addition to identification of wood species were conducted. Stress wave non-destructive testing (NDT) was used and wave speed (WS) was measured in tested members to evaluate the decay situation of major wooden beams of building frames and roof truss. After obtaining data related to WS, time of wave transition (TWT) was calculated and compared with control time. Structural elements were characterized in comparison with control time and classified according to decay severity. The results showed that local hardwood species were used for construction of this building. Furthermore, in some parts of the building, there were severely defected structures, thus highlighting the importance of safety. The results also showed that WS strongly depended on the types of faults.</p> Mehrab Madhoushi, Saeideh Ebrahimi, Asghar Omidvar Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Thu, 13 May 2021 00:00:00 -0300 EFFECTS OF LAND USE AND TOPOGRAPHIC VARIABLES ON DISTRIBUTION OF PINE MISTLETOE (Viscum album subsp. AUSTRIACUM (WIESB.) VOLLM.) IN NORTHEASTERN TURKEY <p>This study evaluates the distribution of pine mistletoe in scots pine ecosystems in relation to topographic variables and land uses. A total of 109 sample plots were selected from pure Scots pine forests in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. Of the sample plots, 69 (63%) were mistletoe infected and 40 (37%) were uninfected. The 6-class dwarf mistletoe rating was used for infection severity. Pearson correlation analysis results showed significant relationships between mistletoe infection severity and topographic variables in 30 m buffer and land use in 500 m buffer. The t-test results showed that there was a significant difference between mean topographic variables and land use in mistletoe infected and uninfected sample plots. The results of the binary logistic regression analysis showed that altitude, productive forest, slope, and road distance were the most significant predictor of the distribution of pine mistletoe as topographic variables and land uses. Common direction of mistletoe infected areas, in addition to expressing Scots pine ecosystems, was a wide range of land use, more humid areas and heterogeneous land structure.</p> Ayhan Usta, Murat Yılmaz Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 -0300 SEGMENTED TAPER MODELS FORM FOR MANCHURIAN FIR AND KOREAN SPRUCE IN NORTHEASTERN CHINA <p>Manchurian fir (<em>Abies nephrolepis</em> Maxim) and Korean spruce (<em>Picea koraiensis</em> Nakai) are primary conifer species of economic and ecological importance in northeast China. Several taper studies have analyzed fir and spruce species in the countries harboring the boreal forests. However, taper models do not exist for Manchurian fir and Korean spruce in China or abroad.&nbsp; This study aimed to develop stem taper models for these species. A dataset of 188 destructively sampled trees (Manchurian fir 123 and Korean spruce 65) was used to evaluate eight well-known taper models. These models were fitted with generalized non-linear least squares by using 3570 diameter and height measurements. We incorporated a first-order continuous-time error structure to adjust the inherent autocorrelation. The form class segmented model of Clark et al. (1991) best predicted the diameter, merchantable volume, and stem volume of the species when the upper stem diameter at 5.3 m was available or predicted. When diameter measurements at 5.3 m were not available, the Kozak (2004) and MB (1976) models were superior to other models in estimating the diameter of both species and volume of Korean spruce. For Manchurian fir, the Fang (2000) model was more accurate in volume estimates.</p> Amna Hussain, Muhammad Khurram Shahzad, Lichun Jiang, Fengri Li Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 -0300 DISTRIBUTION AND IMPORTANCE OF SOME ENDEMIC Astragalus L. SPECIES IN SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE AREAS: A CASE STUDY FROM NORTHERN TURKEY <p>The objective of this study is to determine the distribution of some endemic <em>Astragalus</em> L. (<em>Astragalus anthylloides</em> Lam., <em>Astragalus lycius</em> Boiss. and <em>Astragalus xylobasis </em>var.<em> angustus </em>(Freyn&amp;Sint.) Freyn&amp;Bornm.) species, and the interaction between soil and climatic characteristics and desertification risks which are effective in the distribution of these species in a semi-arid environment in Çankırı, northwest Turkey. During the vegetation period in 2017, soil and plant samples were collected from 180 points. Desertification Risk (DR) and Environmentally Sensitive Area Index (ESAI) were calculated for each sampling point using Desertification Indicator System for Mediterranean Europe (DIS4ME). Because of calculations using DIS4ME system, A.<em> anthylloides</em> and A. <em>lycius</em> in the forest areas where species were distributed, DR was lowest with 0.49 with no risk and highest with 3.73 as moderate risk, and with an average of 2.20 in the field as low risk. For A.<em> xylobasis</em> var. <em>angustus</em><em>,</em> DR levels ranged from lowest to highest at 5.01 and highest at 5.42 in grassland. The values of ESAI type ranged from 1.34-1.50 in the forest areas where the species A.<em> anthylloides</em> and A. <em>lycius</em> were distributed, and they ranged between 1.33 and 1.47 for A.<em> xylobasis</em> var. <em>angustus </em>in the ranged grassland areas. The result of the correlation analysis between the DR and <em>Astragalus </em>L. species changes according to the land use types and distribution of plants. When the relationship between all the three species of DR evaluated together, these endemic species emerged as the indicator plant species to determining desertification status.</p> Ebru Gül, Melda Dölarslan Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 -0300 BIOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND ESTABLISHMENT OF TREE SEEDLINGS IN SOIL AFTER DEPOSITION OF IRON MINING RESIDUES <p>The recovery of areas impacted by mining activities is a major challenge and requires knowledge of how the biological and biochemical processes of the soil as well as the establishment of plant species are affected by mining residue. In this work, the influence of deposition of iron mining mud and tailings on soil biochemical attributes and the initial development of tree seedlings was studied in a simulated event in the greenhouse. Pots (n = 27) with natural soil (2.0 kg) received deposition (280 mL) of iron mining mud or tailings and by three-month was cultivated with <em>Urochloa decumbens</em>. At the end of this period, part of the pots was sampled and the soil biochemical activities (basal soil respiration, microbial biomass carbon, enzyme activity β-glucosidase, quantification of easily extractable glomalin) were evaluated. Then tree seedlings (<em>Schinus terebinthifolius</em> and <em>Eremanthus incanus</em>) were planted and cultivated for a year, when then shoot (SDW) and roots (RDW) dry weight were evaluated. The mud deposition reduced (p &lt; 0.05) the SDM of <em>E. incanus</em>. The deposition of iron mining mud and tailings affected negatively (p &lt; 0.05) the β-glucosidase and reduced in 19% the easily extractable glomalin. Nevertheless, <em>Uruchloa</em> <em>decumbens</em> and <em>Eremanthus</em> <em>incanus</em> showed no variation in dry weight production between treatments, showing good establishment capacity in soil affected by mining residue.</p> Jessé Valentim dos Santos, Alexandre Carvalho Ribeiro Junior, Aline Oliveira Silva, Éder Rodrigues Batista, Filipe Sales Naves, Flávio Araújo Pinto, Marisângela Viana Barbosa, Ingrid Fernanda Santana Alvarenga, Marco Aurélio Carbone Carneiro Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Fri, 21 May 2021 00:00:00 -0300 USE OF THE PROCESS-BASED MODELS APPLIED TO GLOBAL FOREST RESEARCH: A BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS <p>Process-based modeling is composed of physiological processes and biophysical parameters that simulate net primary productivity, growth, yield, mortality, energy and water balance of trees, providing information and estimates for forest management and services. Through bibliometric evaluation we identify the quantitative state of the art on the use of Process-Based Models (MBPs) applied in forestry studies, contextualizing research fronts, and analyzing the main topics and emerging themes. Data from the Web of Science and Scopus were used for the bibliometric survey of 533 scientific records. We verified that (i) the number of publications related to the MBP was boosted in the years 2000, and is growing; (ii) Forest Ecology and Management (74 publications) is the journal that most publishes on the subject; (iii) Annikki Mäkelä is the most productive researcher (20 publications) and most cited (h-index: 12); (iv) The USA (131 records) is the country with the highest number of research; (v) there are eight collaborative networks between the authors, three workings together, and five producing in isolation; (vi) the keywords are grouped into five clusters: (a) the effect of climate change on forests; (b) carbon studies; (c) physiology of trees; (d) silvicultural practices and; (e) analysis of model uncertainties. The separation of themes showed that the new search hotspots are the PBM with the use of remote detection tools. The results presented can be a fundamental theoretical tool for understanding the trends and development perspectives of this research line in future studies.</p> Anny Francielly Ataide Gonçalves, Juscelina Arcanjo dos Santos, Luciano Cavalcante de Jesus França, Otávio Camargo Campoe, Thiza Falqueto Altoé, Jose Roberto Soares Scolforo Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Fri, 28 May 2021 00:00:00 -0300 Dendrometric characterization of a Cupressus lusitanica Mill. stand planted under a Pinus taeda L. cover in Southern Brazil <p>This research aimed to i) describe dendrometric variables of <em>Pinus taeda</em> and <em>Cupressus lusitanica</em> in a 13-year shelterwood system, (ii) assess the land use efficiency by the multilayer arrangement and, (iii) evaluate the existence of correlation among <em>Cupressus lusitanica </em>variables and distance from <em>Pinus taeda </em>trees. This research´s data was obtained from an underplanting system established on a <em>P. taeda</em> stand, partially harvested to a stocking density of 60 stems ha<sup>-1</sup> at 23 years; then, <em>C. lusitanica</em> Mill. was planted in a stocking of 1,600 stems ha<sup>-1</sup>, in the highlands of Southern Brazil. In 2018, samples of these trees were measured in terms of diameter, total height, individual volume, and crown projection area. Basal area and crown projection area were summed to verify the system´s coverage area and used space. A 10-meters distance criterion from <em>P. taeda </em>trees was applied to check their influence on <em>C. lusitanica</em> growth behavior. The <em>P. taeda</em> performance on the dendrometric variables was compatible with its age, and <em>C. lusitanica </em>showed lower means compared to pure plantations around the world. The two species summed a basal area of 36.5 m² ha<sup>-1</sup> and 34,209.2 m² ha<sup>-1</sup> in the crown projection area, indicating an efficient use of the productive space due to crown overlapping. The correlation was statistically significant only for diameter, which means that there was an effect of <em>P. taeda </em>shelter trees on this variable. The vicinity to <em>P. taeda</em> did not affect <em>C. lusitanica</em> growth in terms of height, individual volume, and crown area. &nbsp;</p> Larissa Regina Topanotti, Douglas Rufino Vaz, Mário Dobner Jr., Marcos Felipe Nicoletti Copyright (c) 2021 CERNE Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0300