CERNE <p><strong>Aims and scope</strong></p> <p>CERNE is a Brazilian journal that publishes forest science articles. It is affiliated with the Federal University of Lavras/Brazil, which has been our publisher since 1992. Our goal is to disseminate the latest research findings to anyone interested in plantations or natural forests. Our articles cover topics such as silviculture, forest management, forest ecology, and wood science and technology. We invite authors to challenge themselves and present new technologies and innovative ideas. We value clear hypotheses, methods, and social benefits of forest uses. Our documents (manuscripts, reviews, published articles) are securely stored in our institutional database (Repository policy). We are an international journal that accepts only English manuscripts.</p> <p><strong>Peer-review</strong></p> <p>Our peer-review process is double-blind and guarantees high-quality standards before acceptance. Our editors are experienced and helpful in enhancing the authors’ work.</p> <p><strong>Open access</strong></p> <p>We offer open access to all our articles, meaning that anyone can read and download them for free. We do not charge any fees or article processing charges (APC) to our authors or readers. We also encourage the use of social media to share and promote our publications.</p> <p><strong>Licensing and Copyright </strong></p> <p>The published articles are freely distributed among researchers and social media, and all Authors transfer the copyright to Cerne. The research findings can also be used in classroom teaching, conferences, dissertations/theses, and other applications without any restriction. We strongly recommend citing the article to reach a wider audience. The Author also declares that the work is original and free of plagiarism. 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This id number tracks the metadata of an article for wide share on digital networks. </p> <p><strong>ORCID</strong></p> <p>We encourage all authors to visit the website of Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) project, which is a global and not-for-profit organization. The ORCID number is a unique, persistent identifier for individuals to use that connects research with their contributions across disciplines, borders, and articles.</p> <p>Submit now!</p> en-US CERNE 0104-7760 <p>The published articles are freely distributed among researchers and social media, and all authors transfer the copyright to Cerne. The research findings can also be used in classroom teaching, conferences, dissertations/theses, and other applications without any restriction. We strongly recommend citing the article to reach a wider audience. The Author also declares that the work is original and free of plagiarism. The authors agree with the publication and are responsible for the accuracy of the information.</p> SPATIOTEMPORAL DYNAMIC OF OAK FOREST GREENNESS IN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE DERIVED DROUGHT <p data-sider-select-id="16523627-ee61-4361-8cb9-6cacc3139578"><strong data-sider-select-id="c322723f-c806-47c3-b4ab-b476134f4121">BACKGROUND</strong>: Climate change, which has mainly manifested in Iran in the form of intensifying periods of drought, can have profound effects on the valuable forest ecosystems of Zagros in the west of Iran. In this study, the drought trend in the period from 2000 to 2020 was investigated on the spatiotemporal dynamics of greenness of Zagros oak forests in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad province in the west of Iran. SPI, PDSI, NDVI and EVI with modeling their relationship based on GWR was used. Also, based on two climate change scenarios RCP2.6 and RCP8.5, the simulation of drought conditions and changes in forest greenness until 2050 were studied.</p> <p data-sider-select-id="61203d4f-c354-4c06-bad5-bdecbbd3b078"><strong data-sider-select-id="6c548777-a28b-470b-86fd-45b1022572ae">RESULTS</strong>: The results showed that the peak greenness of the oak forests has a significant sensitivity to changes in rainfall and drought at the end of the cold period of the year and in the spring season. The negative phases of the drought have been completely consistent with the periods of greenness loss. Also, both the greenness and the area of the oak forests have decreased. The EVI index showed<br />the highest sensitivity to the PDSI, and the developed model based on these two indices had a spatial explanation coefficient between 40 and 70%.</p> <p data-sider-select-id="61203d4f-c354-4c06-bad5-bdecbbd3b078"><strong data-sider-select-id="7f0466f5-401e-4474-b5cc-14ae59acfb19">CONCLUSION</strong>: The implementation of the developed model under two scenarios showed that the forest greenness will face a decrease of about 25% in the RCP8.5 scenario and about 15% in the RCP2.6 scenario until 2050. The relationship between drought and forest decline was proven in this study.</p> Maryam Daghestani Mohadeseh Ghanbari Motlagh Mansour Halimi Copyright (c) 2024 CERNE 2024-05-20 2024-05-20 30 1 103269 EFFECTS OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON NATURAL POPULATIONS OF Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan: INSIGHTS FOR CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT <p><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Background</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The objective of this study is to characterize the diversity and genetic structure of </span><em><span class="fontstyle3">A.<br />colubrina </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">in three Atlantic Forest fragments in the south of Espírito Santo state, using Inter Simple<br />Sequence Repeats (ISSR) molecular markers. Genomic DNA from 85 trees was analyzed using 12<br />ISSR primers, generating 147 fragments, of which 109 were polymorphic (74%). Markers were<br />characterized as moderately informative, with a mean polymorphic informational content of 0.34.<br /></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Results</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Low genetic diversity was found for the three fragments and in the total sample, based on<br />Nei’s diversity parameters (</span><span class="fontstyle3">H* </span><span class="fontstyle2">= 0.26) and Shannon’s index (</span><span class="fontstyle3">I* </span><span class="fontstyle2">= 0.38). In the dissimilarity analysis,<br />four groups were observed in the dendrogram with an exclusive clustering trend by location.<br />The analysis of molecular variance confirmed that most of the genetic variation is found within<br />populations (73.50%), however, with high genetic differentiation between them (</span><span class="fontstyle3">Φ</span><span class="fontstyle3">ST </span><span class="fontstyle2">= 0.26). This<br />result was supported by the Bayesian approach that indicated genetically structured populations.<br /></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The data obtained reveal that forest fragmentation affected the diversity and genetic<br />structure of </span><span class="fontstyle3"><em>A. colubrina</em> </span><span class="fontstyle2">and allow expanding knowledge for the development of effective strategies<br />for the conservation and management of the species.</span> </p> Karla Daniele Araújo da Silva Adelson Lemes da Silva Júnior Mariana Cruz de Souza Lucimara Cruz de Souza Fábio Demolinari de Miranda Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira Cássia dos Santos Azevedo Taís Cristina Bastos Soares Copyright (c) 2024 CERNE 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 30 1 103316 CHARACTERIZING AND SEPARATING THE LIGNOCELLULOSIC FIBERS FROM THE AÇAÍ PULPING WASTE: TOWARDS KRAFT PULPING <p><strong>Background: </strong>Over 80% of the açaí fruit is a valuable lignocellulosic waste. Kraft pulping is an alternative for future industrialization to convert açaí waste fibers into paper, but it demands high amounts of undamaged fibers.&nbsp; Therefore, this work aimed to characterize the açaí waste fiber, and to test three fiber extraction methods from the seed’s surface, one manual and two mechanical, focusing on the papermaking industry.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Açaí waste fibers have ≈ 50 % of cellulose with lower contents of extractives (≈ 4.7 %) and non-cellulosic structural components (≈&nbsp; 43.3 %). Microscopic açaí fibers are bundles that dissociate into short fiber cells (388 µm). Their pulp-paper quality biometry indexes were aspect ratio (31.8-41.2), wall fraction (52.8 %), flexibility coefficient (47.2 %), boiler index (0.6), Runkel index (1.2), and Mulstep index (0.8). The manual removal preserved the fibers but had the lowest efficiency (0.1 g/min). The food processor balanced intermediate preservation of the fibers and efficiency (0.5 g/min). Despite the highest efficiency (3.4 g/min), the hammer mill method damaged the fiber morphology and increased the levels of extractives (&gt; 3%) and hemicelluloses (&gt; 10%). <strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Açaí waste macroscopic fibers are dissociable into short fibers and have a favorable chemistry for kraft pulping and developing cellulose products. The fiber biometry is not ideal, but not limiting, demanding adjustments in the future kraft pulping parameters. The extraction of the fiber by the food processor is recommended, which is transferrable to the local communities, assuring an integrated bioeconomy of the açaí waste.</p> Dhimitrius Neves Paraguassú Smith de Oliveira Lays Camila Matos Tiago Marcolino de Souza Elesandra da Silva Aráujo Marcela Gomes da Silva Carla Priscilla Tavora Lourival Marin Mendes Qüinny Soares Rocha Lina Bufalino Copyright (c) 2024 CERNE 2024-07-03 2024-07-03 30 1 103376 21st CENTURY CLIMATE CHANGE THREATENS ON THE BROWN BEAR <p><strong>BACKGROUND</strong>: Today, the biggest threat to mammalian predators with wide distribution areas is habitats fragmentation or change climate conditions. We aimed to reveal the habitat suitability modeling and mapping of the Brown bear, which is an important large mammal in Turkey's borders, under change climate. The habitat suitability modelling was determined using the present (2010) and future (2040-2070-2100) chelsa climate scenarios (IPSL-CM6A-LR SSP126-SSP370-SSP585) Maxent method with the present data obtained by examining all studies on Brown bear. Then, the mapping result values for the different years and scenarios revealed were classified as 0.5 unsuitable habitats, 0.51-0.8 suitable habitats and 0.81-1.0 most suitable habitats.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> We determined that the variables contributing to the habitat suitability model of Brown bear are annual precipitation amount, the average annual air temperature, the precipitation amount of the wettest month, the ruggedness and elevation. According to the mapping results revealed according to different years and scenarios; Brown bear have suitable habitat a minimum of 14.87% of the study area in today, 12.56% in 2040 year, 10.93% in 2070 year and 8.24% in 2100 year. According to the SSP585 climate scenario of 2100 year, the habitat suitability of the Brown bear decreases by approximately 45%. According to the climate envelope model created with MaxEnt, the change climate in the 2100 year endangered the Brown bear.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Therefore, these results will be a source of information for the sustainability of the extinction of the Brown bear, for the pre-protection of existing and potential habitats and for reducing the impact of change climate conditions.</p> Ahmet acarer Ahmet MERT Copyright (c) 2024 CERNE 2024-04-22 2024-04-22 30 1 103305 Molecular and quantitative genetic analysis of the neotropical tree Jacaranda micrantha Cham. <p><strong>Backgrounds</strong>: Urban and peri-urban fragments are vital for biodiversity conservation, requiring genetic assessment of tree species in fragmented forests. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic variability and diversity for adult individuals of <em>J. micrantha</em> along an urban-rural gradient in the Araucaria Forest. Fifteen individuals were sampled, with five from each remaining forest type. Initially, 10 ISRR primers were tested. Five mother trees were chosen from each site (urban, peri-urban, and rural) with a minimum distance of 100 m. The experimental design was a RCBD with 15 progenies, three provenances, three blocks, and 20 plants per plot, totaling 900 seedlings.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The average percentage of polymorphic loci was 93.33%. The urban population showed a greater loss of genetic diversity (H=0.1806). 79% of the genetic diversity was found within populations. The observed gene flow value (Nm) was 1.8790, indicating that there were no random losses of alleles within populations. The fragments did not exhibit significant differences, but there were significant differences among the progenies. The stem diameter (SD) and the height-diameter relationship (H/SD) emerged as the key traits for selecting new individuals due to their higher heritability (&lt; 0.50), accuracy (&lt; 0.70), and relative coefficient of variation (&lt; 7%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The urban fragment is the most affected, but gene flow between fragments prevents the random loss of alleles. The analysis suggests that these fragments form a unique population, despite geographic barriers. Thus, the three fragments can be considered when choosing superior individuals for future progeny tests in genetic improvement programs for the species.</p> Daniela Sanson Isabel Homczinski Rafael Henrique Roque Rogério Bobrowski Fabiana Schmidt Bandeira Peres Evandro Vagner Tambarussi Copyright (c) 2024 CERNE 2024-04-22 2024-04-22 30 1 103353 INFLUENCE OF SPACING BETWEEN TREES ON WOOD AND CHARCOAL QUALITY INDICATORS <p><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Background</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality indicators for wood and charcoal<br />from the </span><em><span class="fontstyle3">Eucalyptus urophylla </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">x </span><em><span class="fontstyle3">Eucalyptus grandis </span></em><span class="fontstyle2">hybrid (Clone GG 100) in different planting<br />spacings. The study was conducted with the hybrid using the spacings of 2×1, 2×2, 3×2, and 3×3 m.<br />The chemical properties of wood and charcoal were analyzed, and dry wood mass and energy per<br />hectare were estimated. The data were subjected to the t test for comparison of means. Moreover,<br />principal component analysis was conducted to assess the relationships between wood and charcoal<br />indicators as a function of spacing.<br /></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Results</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The 2×2 m spacing showed the highest values for dry wood mass, lignin mass, mass of<br />charcoal, and energy. The wider spacings of 3×2 and 3×3 m resulted in wood and charcoal of<br />increased quality by showing wood of greater resistance to thermal degradation and charcoal of<br />higher yield.<br /></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Spacing between trees influenced wood quality indicators. The 2×2 m spacing showed<br />higher estimates of mass and energy per hectare. However, wide spacings with an area greater than<br />6 m</span><span class="fontstyle2">2 </span><span class="fontstyle2">are more suitable for charcoal production due to their superior wood properties, especially<br />basic density and total lignin, which influence gravimetric yields and bulk density.</span> </p> Gabriel Soares Lopes Gomes Sílvio Nolasco de Oliveira Neto Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro Lucas Sérgio de Sousa Lopes Hélio Garcia Leite Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira Copyright (c) 2024 CERNE 2024-04-22 2024-04-22 30 1 103270 THE DISPERSIBILITY OF CELLULOSE I AND CELLULOSE II BY TEMPO-MEDIATED OXIDATION <p><strong>Background:</strong> The restricted dispersibility of cellulose in water has grown to be a significant problem which is a key step in making cellulose soluble in water and common solvent. To overcome the obstacle, cellulose structure is being modified to improve the surface properties and the utilization of the cellulose itself. In this study, cellulose I and cellulose II were examined after treated with water-soluble 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO). The hydrogen bond between chains and the crystallinity of the cotton linter (cellulose I) was first broken by NaOH/urea treatment. Then, cellulose I and NaOH/urea-treated cellulose (cellulose II) were oxidized with sodium chlorite, sodium bromide, and TEMPO in a catalytic amount.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The success of oxidation is revealed when both cellulose I and II treated with TEMPO had preferentially converted the hydroxyl groups to carboxylate groups through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). Besides, through X-ray diffraction analysis, cellulose I and II exhibited a decreased in the crystallinity. All samples were examined by thermogravimetric analysis, dispersion analysis, and field emission scanning electron microscopy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The result showed, cellulose has been successfully modified using TEMPO-mediated oxidation with improved dispersion properties. The scattered structure revealed through morphology analysis proved that cellulose treated with TEMPO had resulted in a more dispersed and separated cellulose fibre structure. High cellulose dispersion ability will allow the manufacturing process of hydrogel, film and fibre to be much easier and faster. This is necessary for creating novel, environmentally friendly materials for various applications across numerous industries and future research anticipated to increase.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nursyamimi Ahmad Ghazali Kushairi Mohd Salleh Nur Fathihah Jafri Khairunnisa Atiqah Mohamad Khalid Sarani Zakaria Nurul Husna Ab Halim Copyright (c) 2024 CERNE 2024-04-22 2024-04-22 30 1 103320 ADDITIVE EQUATIONS SYSTEM TO ESTIMATE ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS BY STRUCTURAL COMPONENT AND TOTAL OF THREE GIANT BAMBOO SPECIES IN MEXICO <p><strong>Background: </strong>Bamboo species have a high potential to produce biomass and stock carbon. However, biometric tools are not available to estimate biomass production for most giant bamboo taxa. The aim was to develop an additive equation system to estimate the aboveground biomass by structural component and the total of the three bamboo species. Destructive sampling was applied, and a sample of 101 mature bamboo specimens was collected. The nonlinear power allometric model was used to integrate two additive equations systems, which were formed by the structural components of biomass: culm, branches and leaves as well as aboveground biomass total. The predictor variables were: diameter at breast height (D) for the S1 system, and D in combination with the total height (D2H) for the S2 system.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>It was determined that the SUR method in combination with the dummy variables technique and the correction of heteroscedasticity is an adequate fit strategy. Given that the additivity property is fulfilled, specific values of the parameters of each system and by taxon are identified. In addition, the variance of the error stabilizes. The aboveground biomass of the culm constitutes 86.40%, 90.48%, and 93.94% for <em>Bambusa oldhamii </em>Munro, <em>Guadua aculeata </em>Rupr.<em>, </em>and <em>Guadua angustifolia </em>Kunth, respectively. The S1 system was selected, and its statistics regarding the total aboveground biomass were 0.92, 4.9 kg, -0.35 kg, and 0.05 for the fit statistics <em>R</em><em>2adj</em>, RMSE, S, and E, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This biometric tool will easier to carry out aboveground biomass inventories, as well as to infer the carbon content and CO2 equivalent at the specimen level.</p> Casimiro Ordóñez-Prado Juan Carlos Tamarit-Urias Adan Nava-Nava Melchor Rodríguez-Acosta Copyright (c) 2024 CERNE 2024-05-21 2024-05-21 30 1 Advances and perspectives in the propagation and conservation of mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes) – review on a tropical fruit tree with socioeconomic importance <p><strong>Background:</strong><em> Hancornia speciosa</em> is a species known for its medicinal and food properties. Being a native plant of various regions in Brazil, some aspects of its production system are still not well-defined. Among them, large-scale asexual propagation stands out, hindering commercial orchards' establishment using materials with superior characteristics. In this context, this article aimed to investigate the scientific production related to the propagation and conservation of the mangabeira tree, using a mixed methodology of bibliometric analysis and literature review. The Scopus and Web of Science databases were consulted, and the VOSviewer software was employed to map the cooperation network among authors, institutions, and keywords.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study included 71 articles and found a significant increase in scientific production on the propagation and conservation of the mangabeira tree since 2009. Most studies focused on seed technology, seedling production, in vitro propagation and conservation, and cryopreservation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded that the mangabeira tree has great potential for developing new propagation protocols, emphasizing techniques that allow for the clonal propagation of the species, such as grafting, rooting of cuttings, and micropropagation. It is expected, therefore, that future research will continue to improve the in vitro and ex vitro propagation of the mangabeira tree, contributing to the expansion of commercial orchards of this fruit tree.</p> Augusto Vinicius de Souza Nascimento Paulo Augusto Almeida Santos Ana Veruska Cruz da Silva Muniz Ana da Silva Lédo Copyright (c) 2024 CERNE 2024-04-22 2024-04-22 30 1 103313 APPARENT DENSITY OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD EVALUATED BY DIGITAL X-RAY IMAGES AFTER STORAGE IN THE FIELD DURING 365 DAYS <p>Background: The use of X-rays non-destructive technique in color scale in 2D and 3D needs further studies to understand variations in the apparent density of wood stored under natural conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate, by digital X-ray images and to test the rainbow scale in digital X-ray images in 2D and 3D, the apparent density of eucalyptus wood after storage in the field during 365 days. Trees of two diametric classes were randomly distributed at three heights in a pile in direct contact with the soil. The apparent density of the wood and its diametric profiles in the radial direction were determined using digital X-ray images in gray scale, and converted to a rainbow scale and the density variations plotted on a 3D surface.</p> <p>Results: The wood density decreased as the storage period increased. The density of the samples at 0 days of storage evaluated with the 3D images was homogeneous, while an intense attack by xylophagous organisms due to the exposure to the environmental conditions was observed in those collected at 365 days of storage.</p> <p>Conclusion: The rainbow scale color from X-ray images facilitated to visualize and to interpret the variation of apparent density distribution of the wood.</p> Rayana Augusta Grandal Savino Barbosa Vinícius Resende de Castro Paula Gabriella Surdi William Moreira de Oliveira Caio Cesar Nemer Martins Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio José Cola Zanuncio Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro Solange de Oliveira Araújo Copyright (c) 2024 CERNE 2024-07-09 2024-07-09 30 1 Production and analysis of the physical and mechanical of particleboards panels produced with Acrocomia aculeata endocarp <p><strong>Background:</strong> The macauba (<em>Acrocomia aculeata</em> (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Mart.) is a palm tree native to tropical regions and occurs in much of the Brazilian territory. Current studies are focused on the extraction and exploitation of vegetable oil from this fruit. However, there are few studies on the residue, the endocarp, which represents approximately 25% of the total mass of the fruit. Studies that search for solutions for using residue, thus adding value, and generating environmentally friendly products, are of fundamental importance. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of reconstituted wood panels produced with different proportions of macauba endocarp particles to replace pine wood particles, in addition to characterize the physical and chemical properties of macauba endocarp. The chemical characterization tests were performed according to applicable standards. The basic density was determined according to the NBR 11941 standard. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were also performed. The particleboards panels were produced with a nominal density of 0.70g/cm³ and dimensions of 25x25x1.5cm. Five different treatments were evaluated with variations in the proportion of macauba endocarp particles in the core of the panel. For particle agglutination, phenol-formaldehyde adhesive was used at a proportion of 9% for the core and 12% for the faces, based on the dry mass of each panel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the panel surfaces.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>The endocarp of <em>Acrocomia aculeata</em> has low extractive content, high lignin content and high densification, 1.23g/cm³, when compared to <em>Pinus oocarpa</em> wood, 0.43g/cm³. All panels were classified as low density according to CS 236-66 and had an average apparent density between treatments of 0.586g/cm³. A greater dimensional stability and a decrease in the static bending properties of the panels was observed as the proportion of macauba endocarp particles increased. The internal bonding of the panels showed a positive result with the increase in the use of particles of the residue.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The panels produced have potential for use for non-structural purposes.</p> Luisa de Oliveira Menali Uasmim Lira Zidanes Matheus Cordazzo Dias Carine Setter Mariana Nayara Lima Silveira Douglas Lamounier Faria Fábio Akira Mori José Benedito Guimarães Júnior Saulo Rocha Ferreira Copyright (c) 2024 CERNE 2024-04-19 2024-04-19 30 1 103302 EFFECTS OF FLIGHT AND SMOOTHING PARAMETERS OF NUMBER OF TREES WITH AERIAL IMAGERY IN A NATIVE BRAZILIAN ATLANTIC FOREST REMNANT <p>Background: The objective of this study was to detect native trees from different flight configurations and smoothing techniques in Canopy Height Models (CHMs) in a native remnant in the municipality of Curitiba, State of Paraná, Brazil. To do so, eight flights were carried out with a Phantom 4, with two flight planning applications (Litchi and Pix4Dcapture) and two flight arrangements (single and double), totaling four flights for each application. All flights were processed using the Pix4Dmapper program. The LiDAR database was obtained with a DJI Matrice 300 system and from this data, the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the area was extracted. From the UAV data, the Digital Surface Model (DSM) of each flight was obtained. Subtracting each DSM from the DTM resulted in the CHMs for each UAV flight flown. The CHMs were smoothed with the CHMsmoothing function and three search window sizes were tested (6.5 x 6.5, 8 x 8, and 10 x 10).</p> <p>Results: The results of the ITD approach revealed that in unsmoothed and smoothed CHMs, the search window of size 8 resulted in the best precision metrics, with the highest recall, precision, and F-score values. In the smallest window size, there was the highest number of false positives while in the largest window size, the omitted trees were more representative.</p> <p>Conclusion: The best combination between flight parameters and smoothing techniques was with the Litchi application, with a single flight and 80% lateral and longitudinal overlap, resulting in individuals detected with an F-score of 0.94</p> Carla Talita Pertille Karla Mayara Almada Gomes Darcy Maria da Conceição Laura dos Santos Hudson Franklin Pessoa Veras Midhun Mohan Carlos Roberto Sanquetta Alexandre Behling Ana Paula Dalla Corte Copyright (c) 2024 CERNE 2024-07-09 2024-07-09 30 1