CERNE <p><strong>Aims and scope</strong></p> <p>CERNE is a Brazilian journal that publishes forest science articles. It is affiliated with the Federal University of Lavras/Brazil, which has been our publisher since 1992. Our goal is to disseminate the latest research findings to anyone interested in plantations or natural forests. Our articles cover topics such as silviculture, forest management, forest ecology, and wood science and technology. We invite authors to challenge themselves and present new technologies and innovative ideas. We value clear hypotheses, methods, and social benefits of forest uses. Our documents (manuscripts, reviews, published articles) are securely stored in our institutional database (Repository policy). We are an international journal that accepts only English manuscripts.</p> <p><strong>Peer-review</strong></p> <p>Our peer-review process is double-blind and guarantees high-quality standards before acceptance. Our editors are experienced and helpful in enhancing the authors’ work.</p> <p><strong>Open access</strong></p> <p>We offer open access to all our articles, meaning that anyone can read and download them for free. We do not charge any fees or article processing charges (APC) to our authors or readers. We also encourage the use of social media to share and promote our publications.</p> <p><strong>Licensing and Copyright </strong></p> <p>The published articles are freely distributed among researchers and social media, and all Authors transfer the copyright to Cerne. The research findings can also be used in classroom teaching, conferences, dissertations/theses, and other applications without any restriction. We strongly recommend citing the article to reach a wider audience. The Author also declares that the work is original and free of plagiarism. 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This id number tracks the metadata of an article for wide share on digital networks. </p> <p><strong>ORCID</strong></p> <p>We encourage all authors to visit the website of Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) project, which is a global and not-for-profit organization. The ORCID number is a unique, persistent identifier for individuals to use that connects research with their contributions across disciplines, borders, and articles.</p> <p>Submit now!</p> en-US CERNE 0104-7760 <p>The published articles are freely distributed among researchers and social media, and all authors transfer the copyright to Cerne. The research findings can also be used in classroom teaching, conferences, dissertations/theses, and other applications without any restriction. We strongly recommend citing the article to reach a wider audience. The Author also declares that the work is original and free of plagiarism. The authors agree with the publication and are responsible for the accuracy of the information.</p> 3-D network routing of brazil nut harvesting in tropical forests <p><strong>Background</strong>: The aim of this research is to optimize the routing of Brazil nut harvesting in order to reduce labor costs and promote an equitable redistribution of placements among extractive interests. The study area was located in the Tahuamanu province, designated a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO, in the Madre de Dios region of Peru. Planning for harvesting activities is vital to support sustainable<br />use of the tropical forest by extractive communities, generating profit while minimizing adverse impacts on the forest. A location-allocation model was used to redistribute extraction placement areas, taking into account the number of trees and productivity for analysis. To optimize the order of nut load pickups at the placement areas, the vehicle routing problem (VRP) was used to minimize real distance and reduce traversal time.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: The time taken to cover the route without delays was 08:46’, which is superior to the time taken to minimize the distance. However, the total delay time was 05:10’.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Network analyses were effective in achieving the reallocation of placement areas and optimizing Brazil nut harvest routes.</p> Monique Sabioni Lopes Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro Gustavo Eduardo Marcatti Ana Paula Mendes Teixeira Getulio Fonseca Domingues Vinícius Duarte Nader Mardeni Alexandre Rosa dos Santos Helio Garcia Leite Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-21 2023-06-21 29 1 103242 FTIR spectroscopy and technological characterization of heat treated Fraxinus excelsior wood <p><strong>Background</strong>: The heat treatment of wood between 160 and 260ºC results in the partial degradation of its chemical constituents and alterations in its structure due to the heat exposure. This technology aims to enhance dimensional stability and increase resistance to biodeterioration, resulting in a final product with higher added value. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the physical, anatomical, chemical and mechanical properties of <em>Fraxinus excelsior</em> In untreated and heat treated wood, the pH, buffering capacity, basic density, equilibrium moisture content, shrinkage, wood anatomy, thermogravimetric behavior and chemistry by conventional and FTIR methods were determined.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Heat treated wood had lower pH, equilibrium moisture content, shrinkage and holocellulose contents and higher buffering capacity, extractives and lignin contents. Heat treatment reduced the pH and increased the buffering capacity of the wood, reduced the holocellulose content and increased the lignin content, leaving the wood less hygroscopic and reducing its volumetric and linear variation. The process did not change the basic density and fiber length, but it reduced their width, lumen diameter and wall thickness. Through FTIR analysis, it was possible to verify the degradation of holocellulose and division of aliphatic side chains in lignin. The maximum dredging range of untreated and heat treated wood occurred at 350 ºC, and the heat treated wood had a higher residual mass when subjected to 500 ºC<span style="color: #006798;"><span style="background-color: #d5d5d5;">.</span></span></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Heat treated wood can be indicated for products for external environments, such as floors, fences, coatings, door and window structures.</p> Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro Ana Márcia Macedo Ladeira Carvalho Antonio Jose Vinha Zanuncio Thaís Pereira Freitas Iara Fontes Demuner Amanda Ladeira Carvalho Dandara Paula Silva Guimarães Solange de Oliveira Araujo Vinícius Resende de Castro Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 29 1 103264 CLONAL COMPOSITES AS A STRATEGY FOR MITIGATING THE CLONES × ENVIRONMENTS INTERACTION IN EUCALYPTUS <p><strong>Background: </strong>One of the biggest challenges for breeders, especially for perennial plants, is to have strategies to reduce the risk of recommending new clones. One of the alternatives would be to use a mixture of clones, clonal compounds (CC), instead of monoclones (MC). This strategy has not yet been properly proven from experiments involving CC and MC simultaneously in different environments.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The CC's contribution to the interaction was significant, although associated with a high MAI estimate (m³. ha<sup>-1</sup>. year<sup>-1</sup>). The CC's took better advantage of environmental stimuli than most MC's. The rick estimates in the CC recommendation were, in most situations, lower than those of the different monoclones.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The use of CC proved to be more efficient than the use of MC in mitigating the effects of the interaction of genotypes by environments, in recommending clones for forest exploitation.</p> Ana Flávia Cunha Fernandes de Oliveira José Luis Lima Evandro Novaes Vinícius Quintão Carneiro Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 29 1 103122 ECOLOGICAL PATTERNS AND CONSERVATION OPPORTUNITIES WITH CARBON CREDITS IN BRAZIL NUT GROVES: A STUDY-CASE IN THE SOUTHEAST AMAZON <p><strong>Background: </strong>Brazil Nuts (BN) tree is a species of high importance in Amazon region. Their continuous use by traditional communities is often related to disturbances that lead to larger degraded areas where this species is commonly found (“BN groves”). Here we aimed to explore the ecological patterns of BN groves vegetation and its relationship with BN trees and evaluate their potential as a source of carbon credits. We sampled 15 circular plots, with Brazilian Nut trees as the center (focal trees) and collected morphometric data from the focal trees. Additionally, we evaluated fruit production for a period of 5 years to obtain annual measurements, which were used as a proxy of the anthropic impact associated with the collection process. Through analysis of the data, we: i) examined the effects of BN trees on the adjacent vegetation; ii) quantified the potential amount of carbon credits in the adjacent vegetation and in the focal trees by converting carbon stock to equivalent CO<sub>2</sub>.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>The adjacent vegetation structure was influenced by the size of BN trees (focal trees). No important effects of BN trees on the adjacent vegetation floristic composition and functional attributes were found. Additionally, we found that Brazilian Nut groves possess a significant potential for carbon credits that could be leveraged in the future carbon credit market,</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study highlights the potential for carbon credit generation in Brazil nut groves in the Southeast Amazon as a means of supporting conservation and restoration efforts in these environments.</p> Cléber Rodrigo Souza Aisy B. Baldoni Hélio Tonini Vinícius Andrade Maia Rubens Manoel dos Santos Matheus Luvison Juliano P. Santos Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-04 2023-04-04 29 1 103164 Determining Indicator Plant Species of Pinus brutia Ten. Using Interspecific Correlation Analysis in Antalya (Turkey) <p><strong>Background: </strong>We performed a vegetation study in Antalya, where the Mediterranean climate prevails, in order to determine the indicator plant species of red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.). Red pine can be widely distributed from sea level to 1200 meters. Its main distribution is in the main Mediterranean vegetation zone between 500-1000 meters. However, the variation of the habitat factors may be low in this range. Therefore, the productivity relationships of species such as red pine, whose sustainable use is important, cannot be directly explained by environmental variables. In such cases, it is important to determine the indicator plant species. For this reason, indicator plant species were determined by using interspecific correlation analysis (ICA) in the study. Then, using principal components analysis, the relationship of indicator plant species with the variables of elevation, slope, aspect and soil depth was revealed. In the principal components analysis, the plant species that were determined as an indicator were also added to the graph as a class variable, and the effects of the variables on the indicator plant species were also investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of the ICA showed that <em>Dryopteris flix-mas</em> (L.) Schott, <em>Abies cilicica</em> (Antoine &amp; Kotschy) Carrière, <em>Cedrus libani</em> A. RICH and <em>Colutea cilicica</em> Boiss. &amp; Bal. species were negative indicators of productivity. On the other hand, <em>Cistus creticus</em> L. and <em>Smilax aspera</em> L. species were positive indicators of productivity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Interspecific correlation analysis is a useful tool to determine the ecological properties of species that have a local distribution or a vertical distribution in a narrow altitude range. It also offers practical and effective results, especially for species with high commercial value such as red pine.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Serkan Özdemir Tunahan Çınar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 29 1 103188 The Strategies for optimizing the enrichment direct sowing: inoculation with Trichoderma spp. and use of a hydrogel <p><strong>Background:</strong> Direct sowing technique is considered a promising tool for reducing costs and increasing species diversity in restoration projects. However, several factors can limit its success, making it necessary for methodological adjustments to be made in order to maximize the emergence, establishment and initial growth of plants. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the use of fungus <em>Trichoderma asperelloides</em> and hydrogel in the enrichment direct sowing as a strategy to enrich the area in the initial restoration process. The forest species studied were <em>Balfourodendron riedelianum</em>, <em>Cedrela fissilis</em>, <em>Luehea divaricata</em>,<em> Enterolobium contortisiliquum</em> and <em>Parapiptadenia rigida</em>. The experiment was conducted in a factorial design testing absence or presence of the <em>T. asperelloides</em> and absence or presence of hydrogel. Two experiments were established: in the nursery, we evaluations of the emergence of the seedlings were carried out; in the field, we evaluated emergence, survival, height and stem diameter.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Under nursery conditions, inoculation and the use of hydrogel did not influence the emergence of species tested. Direct sowing proved to be a promising technique for the enrichment of young restoration plantations in subtropical regions with <em>E. contortisiliquum</em>, <em>P. rigida</em> and <em>C. fissilis.</em> <em>B. riedelianum </em>and <em>L. divaricata</em> seeds did not germinate in the field.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The use of <em>T. asperelloides</em> is an efficient strategy to enhance the results of direct sowing, capable of providing higher rates of emergence for <em>E. contortisiliqumm</em> and <em>P. rigida</em> and maximizing the growth in height of <em>E. contortisiliqumm</em>. Under high pluviometric intensity, the use of the hydrogel does not influence the emergence and morphological attributes of the species studied.</p> Adriana Maria Griebeler Maristela Machado Araujo Gerusa, Pauli Kirst Steffen Felipe Turchetto Daniele Guarienti Rorato Felipe Manzoni Barbosa Álvaro Luis Pasquetti Berghetti Ezequiel Gasparin Suelen Carpenedo Aimi Claudia Costella Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 29 1 103212 Burn severity evaluation in black pine forests with topographical factors using Sentinel-2 in Kastamonu, Türkiye <p><strong>Backgroud:</strong> Forest fires are one of the most important natural disasters all over the world in terms of the damage they cause to the ecosystem. It is observed that there is a significant increase in the number of forest fires in Türkiye and in the world. This situation jeopardizes the sustainability of forests. It is very important to estimate fire behavior characteristics in order to take pre-fire measures and to take effective interventions in the event of a fire. Obtaining data based on terrestrial measurements to predict fire behavior is both very expensive and very time consuming. At this point, the use of remote sensing technologies is very useful. In this respect, using satellite images to determine the areas destroyed by fire and their burning severity will be faster, more sensitive and economical in terms of fire fighting and precautions to be taken.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In this study, the forest fire that occurred in Kastamonu-Taşköprü district was analyzed with remote sensing techniques. First of all, pre-fire and post-fire Sentinel-2 images of fire areas were used to determine the burned area using NBR (Normalized Burn Ratio) and dNBR (Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio) indices. Also, burned area rate and burn severity were evaluated the depending on the altitude, aspect and slope factors.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We found that almost 1504.9 ha forest land burned in the study site. Topographical maps showed that the most burned areas were covered by moderate- and high- severity classes. The forest fire was more severe in the altitude range from 1170 to 1370m, at 20-33% slope and northerly aspects in our study site.</p> Cigdem ÖZER GENÇ Ömer KÜÇÜK Seray ÖZDEN KELEŞ Sabri ÜNAL Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-21 2023-06-21 29 1 103230 Non-Brazilian environmental perception on the Amazon rainforest: an approach using text mining from social media <p><strong>Background</strong>: The Amazon rainforest plays an essential role in sheltering global biodiversity and providing essential ecosystem services. However, the region has been threatened by increased rates of deforestation and degradation, which is often reported as an indicator of the Brazilian conservation policy, which could affect the consumption of agriculture Brazilian products abroad. In this sense, here we aimed to evaluate the foreign environmental perception of the region using data from social networks, to assess which are the main terms related to the region, how their importance varies over time and whether this perception tends to be more negative or positive. For this, we used data from publications made on a social network involving the term “Amazon rainforest” over 18 weeks using a data mining process. From these publications, we extracted the text, which went through steps of cleaning and organization, as well as crossing with additional databases (such as the sentiment dictionary). From the final data set, we first evaluated which are the main terms present in these publications and how their importance varied in the evaluated period. Next, we assess whether the terms cited are mainly negative or positive and how this sentiment varied over the monitoring period.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We found that the main terms are related to the environmental context such as “carbon”, “deforestation” and “fire” and that there is a relationship between their importance and the occurrence of fires in the region. In addition, we also found that the publications are, on average, composed of 68.47 % of negative terms and that this sentiment predominates throughout the entire time series, being higher in the fire peaks in the region.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our results indicate that the environmental perception of the region is mainly negative, due to the scenario of degradation and fires observed over the last few years. We also discuss limitations of the approach and establish perspectives for future work.</p> Cléber Rodrigo Souza Wanderley Jorge da Silveira Júnior Ravi Fernandes Mariano Antônio Carlos de Sousa Couto-Júnior Marco Aurélio Leite Fontes Rubens Manoel dos Santos Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-30 2023-10-30 29 1 103261 Influence of clear-cutting on ground vegetation biomass and dwarf shrubs increment in the Scots pine forests of the European North-East <p><strong>Background</strong>: In spite of important functions the ground vegetation performs, the research on global change and human impact on forests has traditionally focused on tree layer. We have analyzed the influence of clear-cuttings on ground vegetation biomass (GVB), fractional structure and annual increment of dwarf shrubs (bilberry and cowberry) shoots. The investigation was carried out at clear-cut areas of the Scots pine forests in the European North-East of Russia.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The GVB value after clear-cutting increased by 1.9−2.4 times. The GVB values at particular technological elements of clear-cuts (apiaries, skidding tracks) were obtained. On skidding tracks, the biomass was by 1.2–1.7 time less than that on apiaries. Among individual species, <em>Vaccinium vitis-idaea </em>L., <em>Pleurozium schreberi</em> (Willd. ex Brid.) and <em>Dicranum polysetum</em> Sw. demonstrated a positive reaction to clear-cutting but mosses of the <em>Sphagnum </em>L. genus reacted negatively. Invasion of <em>Epilobium angustifolium </em>L<em>. </em>and <em>Avenella flexuosa</em> (L.) Drejer increased the grass biomass, especially on skidding tracks. The linear model was applied for describing the relationship between above- and underground dwarf shrub biomass. The clear-cutting had a negative effect on shoot age and mass of both bilberry and cowberry. However, comfortable light conditions raised the role of foliage in biomass and heightened the increments of studied dwarf shrubs by 1.2–1.3 time.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Clear-cutting had a positive effect both on UVB and increment of dwarf shrubs in Scots pine forests on the European North-East.</p> Andrey Fedorovich Osipov Mikhail A. Kuznetsov Copyright (c) 2022 2023-03-27 2023-03-27 29 1 103107 Determining the plants to be used in monitoring the change in thallium concentrations in the air <div> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Thallium (Tl), which is one of the most toxic and destructive heavy metals for human and environmental health, has a higher level of chronic and acute toxicity in comparison to many harmful elements (such as Pb, Hg, Cd, and As) in comparison to many harmful elements and is classified as one of 13 primary metal contaminants by the US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) and in ATSDR’s primary pollutant list. Thus, monitoring the Tl pollution in the air and reducing the pollution are among the primary research subjects. The existing study aims to determine the species that are suitable for monitoring and reducing the Tl pollution in Düzce province, </span><span lang="TR">Türkiye</span><span lang="EN-US">, which is the fifth-most polluted province in Europe in terms of air pollution. In this study, the changes of Tl concentration in the samples (wood, outer and inner bark) taken from species grown in Düzce by species, organ, direction, and age groups in the last 40 years were analyzed. </span></p> </div> <div> <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Results: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US">As an outcome, the uppermost Tl concentrations were found in the outer barks, and it is thought to be caused by air pollution. The outcomes achieved in the existing study revealed that the suitable species to be used in watching the Tl pollution in the air are <em>Cupressus arizonica</em> and <em>Picea orientalis</em>, whereas those to be used in reducing the Tl pollution are <em>Pinus pinaster, Cupressus arizonica</em>, <em>Cedrus atlantica</em>, and <em>Pseudotsuga menziesii</em>. </span></p> </div> <div><strong><span lang="EN-US">Conclusions: </span></strong><em><span lang="EN-US">Cupressus arizonica </span></em>is a species that can be effectively used in both monitoring and decreasing Tl pollution.</div> uğur cantürk Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-30 2023-10-30 29 1 103282 RADIAL VARIATION OF WOOD DENSITY AND FIBER MORPHOLOGY OF TWO COMMERCIAL SPECIES IN A TROPICAL HUMID FOREST IN SOUTHEASTERN PERU <p><strong>Background</strong>: Knowledge of the anatomy and properties of wood help to understand the quality of wood and plan its ideal technological use, therefore, it is necessary to understand the variations in wood characteristics and properties. Here we evaluate the radial variation of wood density and fiber morphology of two commercial forest species in a tropical humid forest of the department of Madre de Dios in Peru: Jacaranda copaia and <em>Hura crepitans</em> collected in a management area.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: Forestry collecting 10 usable trees by species. We provide general values of the densities and fibers of the two species studied.<br /><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Regarding the variation of the radial density,<em> J. copaia</em> presented a density growth in the pith-bark direction, while for <em>H. crepitans</em> its variation was not significant, these variations are clearly explained by the morphology of its fibers.</p> Leif Armando Portal-Cahuana Erick Alberto Grandez-Piña German Payeza-Tuesta Mario Tomazello-Filho Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-16 2023-05-16 29 1 103143 DORMANCY BREAKING AND BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH GERMINATION OF ERYTHRINA FALCATA BENTH. SEEDS <p><strong>Background: </strong>The aim of this research was to investigate the efficiency of methods to overcome primary dormancy and biochemical processes associated with germination of<em> Erythrina falcata</em> Benth. seeds. Seeds were submitted to dormancy overcoming treatments and the water uptake pattern was analysed. We then evaluated the activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and APX, and quantified lipid peroxidation levels, hydrogen peroxide content and total protein content. The experiments were performed in a completely randomized design and the statistical analysis used was Scott-Knott test at 5% probability.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Mechanical scarification with sandpaper leads to approximately 94% of germination in<em> E. falcata</em>, while control non-scarified seeds show only approximately 37% of germination. Treatments with hot water led to high mortality in <em>E. falcata</em> seeds. Rapid water absorption was observed in the first 18 hours of imbition when the seeds were scarified with sandpaper, and radicle emergence was observed after 36 hours. During imbibition there was an increase of antioxidant enzyme activity, and a decrease in lipid peroxidation and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> production, suggesting an efficient mechanism for regulating imbibition damage. A decrease in the total protein content was observed during germination of <em>E. falcata</em> seeds.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Mechanical scarification is an efficient method for breaking dormancy of <em>E. falcata</em> seeds. During germination of <em>E. falcata</em> seeds there is a reduction in the production of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and lipid peroxidation, and an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The total protein content decreased along the germination time.</p> Mariana Aline Silva Artur José Marcio Rocha Faria Aderson Cleiton José Jean Marcel de Sousa Lira Kamila Rezende Dázio de Souza Fernanda Carlota Nery Amauri Alves de Alvarenga Copyright (c) 2023 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 29 1 103170 Some physiological and biochemical changes in Oak trees after fire <p><strong>Background: </strong>Forest fires are considered integral parts of many forest ecosystems in spite of being a disaster influencing the forest ecosystem dynamics significantly. A fire that occurred within the borders of Düzce-Konuralp Forest Management Chief affected 16 ha of oak forest. The present study aimed to investigate the physiological and biochemical changes in two oak species (<em>Quercus</em> <em>pubescens</em> and <em>Q. cerris</em>) at post fire period. For this purpose, seasonal shoot and leaf samples were collected from 15 trees (5 trees from high and low fire intensity and control groups) for each oak species. The samples were subjected to xylem, water potential, and stomatal conductivity analysis in the field and carbohydrate concentration and proline analyses in the laboratory.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: According to the results, it was found that leaf surface area decreased and root-leaf water connection was broken depending on the intensity of fire. With increasing damage of intensity of fire, water potential and stomatal conductivity of trees increased; proline and carbohydrate concentration amounts decreased. <em>Q. pubescens</em> had lower water potential and stomatal conductivity than <em>Q. cerris</em> but higher proline and carbohydrate concentration amounts.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: <em>Q. pubescens </em>was more resistant to drought stress during the post fire season than <em>Q. cerris</em> from the aspect of physiological and biochemical characteristics.</p> Ali Kabaoğlu Şemsettin Kulaç İsmail Baysal Ali Kemal Özbayram Süleyman Akbulut Nuray Öztürk Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-21 2023-06-21 29 1 103199 Do Picea pungens engelm. organs be a suitable biomonitor of urban atmosphere pollution? <p><strong>Background:</strong> Heavy metal contamination in the air has been gaining importance from scientists due to increasing industrial activities, population growth, and density in urban areas causing many crucial environmental pollution problems. Heavy metals do not quickly disappear and do not decay in nature; they accumulate in plant organs and indirectly affect human and environmental health.<br />On the other hand, some elements are essential for plant growth, but some have poisonous or carcinogenic consequences, even at small concentrations. Thus, determining and observing heavy metal concentrations in the atmosphere is crucial., Plants are the most important indicator of heavy metal concentration changes in the air and are called biomonitors. The current study aims<br />to determine the variation in some elements (K, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Cr) concentration in <em>Picea pungens</em> Engelm. (valued for its bluish or silvery-gray foliage) grown in the Ankara city center (capital of Türkiye and second crowded city), based on the plant needles and the age of the branch. Thus, this study tried to determine the potential of using needle leaves and branches of P. pungens as a<br />biomonitor to determine some heavy metal concentrations.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The heavy metal concentrations significantly differed by organ and organ age. The element levels were higher in the branches in some years and the needles in some years.<br /><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This result indicates that Picea pungens needles and branches are suitable for observing studied heavy metal concentrations. Using branches and needles does not also harm the plant species.</p> İsmail Koç Taher Abdulai Alttaher Ateya Oguzhan Yavuz Bayraktar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-12 2023-09-12 29 1 103228 Determination of Optimum Lumber Drying Schedule of Tree of Heaven Grown in Türkiye <p><strong>Background: </strong>The invasive tree species threaten the domestic species of a region. However, they can be evaluated for wood industry when they were cut to decrease the population. In this study, a fast-growing deciduous tree species, tree-of-heaven (<em>Ailanthus altissima</em>) were studied for determining the optimum drying schedules of lumbers from Turkey-grown individuals.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Optimum schedule was determined from different suggestions in literature and applied in a 1 m<sup>3</sup> capacity laboratory type-drying kiln on 39 lumbers with dimension 65x65x2000 mm. The drying time and quality were evaluated according to standards and different methods (e.g. prong test) from literature. Although the fast-growing species had some risks with having more juvenile wood ratio and lower density, it could be dried 65 to 10 % moisture content with in as short as 10 days with moderate-protective drying quality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Relatively shorter drying time with high quality compared to similar species (e.g. ash) might contribute the economic sustainability of sawmills. Because the shorter drying cycles will save more energy for per volume and they may be more profitable with shorter sellable dried lumber cycles. On the other hand, although the species was fast-growing, medium density (574 kg/m<sup>3</sup>) characteristics might show the potential for being a good alternative for the wood industry.</p> HIZIR VOLKAN GORGUN Öner Ünsal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 29 1 103254 Characterization of the variability of the diameter distribution of natural Taurus cedar stands in Türkiye using Johnson’s SB distribution <p><strong>Background:</strong> This article aims to provide information on the diameter distribution of naturally regenerated forests of Taurus cedar (<em>Cedrus libani</em> A. Rich), a tree species endemic in the mountains of the Eastern Mediterranean basin and assess their prediction ability with the Johnson S<sub>B</sub> distribution. Previous research attested to the flexibility of Johnson family distributions to mimic empirical diameter data for a large set of tree species, justifying its use for the case study. A set of 134 plots (400 m<sup>2</sup>) were sampled in the most represented areas of the distribution of the species in Türkiye and diameter at breast height was measured in all the living trees. The cedar forests displayed heterogeneous diameter structures with diameters range from 10 to 116 cm and irregular shapes (e.g. unimodal, bell-shaped, left- and right-skewed, and non-uniform). Over three-quarters of the empirical diameter distributions (104 sample plots) were classified as SB distribution. The remaining were classified as bounded at the lower end, SL (16) or unbounded, SU (14). The authors essayed the 3-parameter and 4-parameter recovery methods after Parresol and Fonseca and other fundamental studies. The 3-parameter recovery method outperformed the 4-parameter method in the convergence criterion and error index (EI) expressed in the basal area.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Results show that the Johnson SB distribution can adequately reproduce the high variability in diameter for most of the distributions observed in these natural forests, providing reliable estimates which can serve as a basis for decision support systems.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The SB distribution can represent the diameter distributions of natural cedar forests, even if the empirical distributions are not in the region covered by this distribution.</p> Ramazan Özçelik Burak KOPARAN Teresa FONSECA Burak BAŞ Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 29 1 103265 Identification of 20 species from the Peruvian Amazon tropical forest by the wood macroscopic features <p><strong>Background:</strong> The biodiversity of the Peruvian Amazon tropical forests is one of the most expressive in the world, with 2500 forest species, although restricted to about 250 tree species used commercially. This species diversity indicates the challenge magnitude for research in taxonomy and timber species identification. Likewise, it implies the complexity of biodiversity conservation and restoration<br />measures, which are directly related to the control of deforestation, cutting and transport of illegal wood. With this objective, the present study describes the macroscopic wood anatomical features in order to identify 20 tree species from Peruvian Amazon Forest, “Selva Central”, including an identification key and tree species botanical validation.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The wood species are included in 12 families commonly found in the tropical forests of Peru, highlighting the Fabaceae (25%), Moraceae (15%), Podocarpaceae and Lauraceae (10%) families and are sold as timber for several uses and applications in the internal market and for export. The wood species presented common anatomical features, such as diffuse porosity, visible axial parenchyma<br />mainly distinct, and, eventually, with ray storied, e. g: <em>A. cearensis</em>, <em>M. balsamum</em> and <em>M. peruiferum</em>.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The tropical tree species identification is possible by analyzing their wood macroscopic anatomical structure. The results can be also applied in the wood trade traceability by controlling deforestation and illegal wood commerce and in proposing policies for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. They constitute, likewise, a database for the recent wood<br />identification methodologies presented in the specialized literature.</p> CASSIANA ALVES FERREIRA Janet Gaby Inga Guillen Raul Huacho Buendía Osir Daygor Vidal Alanya Danessa Clarita Reyes Aliaga Sthefany Madjory Moya Mateo Benji Steve Ascue Miranda Thonny Centeno Utos Andres Velez MARIO Tomazello Filho Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-21 2023-06-21 29 1 The influence of clear-cut area size on forest regrowth: a case study in the dry tropical forests of Pernambuco, Brazil <p><strong>Background:</strong> Managed Caatinga forests in Northeast Brazil are an important source of wood products, however, successful regeneration and regrowth is important to guarantee sustainability in these forests. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the natural regeneration and forest regrowth ability of a Caatinga forest under varying clear-cut treatments, as well as to estimate the recovery time of stand parameters.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> An experiment was set up in Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil, comparing five clear-cut strip widths: 0, 40, 60, 80 and 100 meters. Forest inventory data was gathered before and eight years after harvesting in 19 plots of 10 x 40 m. Tree seedling regeneration (individuals with circumference at breast height &lt; 6 cm and minimum height of 0.5 m) was also monitored in 5 x 5 m sub plots, before harvesting, one, three and eight years after harvesting.<br /><strong>Conclusions:</strong> No influence of the clear-cut strip width on regeneration and forest regrowth ability was detected, with all treatments presenting similar growth and tree species diversity and similarity values. The estimated growth rates of the clear-cut plots were of 0.12 m2·ha-1·year-1 and 0.39 m3·ha-1·year-1 for basal area and volume, respectively, resulting in recovery times of 35 and 49 years, longer than the 15 years cycles generally adopted in Caatinga forest management plans.</p> Visêldo Ribeiro de Oliveira Andressa Ribeiro Frans Germain Corneel Pareyn Marcos Antônio Drumond Diogo Denardi Porto Lúcia Helena Piedade Kiill Antonio Carlos Ferraz Filho Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 29 1 103165 Structures of tropical dry forests in the Andes: forest conservation, composition and the role of fabaceae and myrtaceae <p><strong>Background:</strong> Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs) are repositories of biodiversity, ecosystem services and carbon that are threatened by fragmentation and climate change. Floristic and phytosociological studies are fundamental databases for many studies of conservation and sustainability, but there is a knowledge gap concerning TDFs, especially in the Andes valleys. The aim of this study was to determine the phytosociological structure and composition of woody vegetation of seven TDFs in the Colombian Andes, and because the flora associated with this type of forest has a geographical distribution restricted to each locality where this biome exists, provide information on the main species, genera and families for conservation and restoration actions as well as for future meta-analyses. We sampled seven TDFs with 20 plots of 25 m × 4 m.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> In the 1.88 hectares of samples, 8422 individuals were surveyed, distributed in 170 species, 120 genera and 50 botanical families. Of these species, 78.82% were identified at the species level, 17.05% at the genus level, and 4.11% at the family level. The most important families were Fabaceae and Myrtaceae. Nitrogen-fixing Fabaceae species were prominent amongst the important species,<br />especially in low altitude and more stressing sites.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The structure, composition and ecological importance of these forests must be considered for conservation and ecological restoration plans, in particular the habitat preference of species along the topographic gradient. Particularly noteworthy for conservation are the Myrtaceae species because promote connectivity and regeneration by providing resources for the fauna, a<br />driver of dispersal, as well as nitrogen-fixing Fabaceae species, because promotes the resilience and natural regeneration of TDFs in the Andes, a key feature of stability.</p> João Augusto Alves Meira-Neto Carlos Mario Galván-Cisneros Luis Roberto Sánchez Montaño Andrey Enrique Ojeda-Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-05 2023-09-05 29 1 103189 Use of Acacia auriculiformis fast-growing tree species for the mitigation of climate change <p><strong>Background</strong>: In the face of increasing wood demand in climate change context, fast-growing species are considered as a current solution. However, the ability of fast-growing species in agroforestry systems to contribute to bridging the gap between wood demand and supply and climate change mitigation also depends on the properties of the species, which vary based on locality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Acacia auriculiformis <em>A. Cunningham</em> ex Benth. wood in Benin to contribute to climate change mitigation while sustainably supplying wood. Tissues proportion (Vessels, ray parenchyma, axial parenchyma, fibers), in the wood; fiber parameters (length, diameter and lumen width); organic carbon content and natural durability of A. auriculiformis wood to termite (<em>Macrotermes bellicosus</em>) were determined. <br /><strong>Results</strong>: The results indicate that the species has a high proportion of fibers (58%), which are quite long (1 mm to 4 mm), an organic carbon content of 35%, and is moderately durable to very durable against termite infestations.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The species, thus, has strong potential for wood (high fiber content, high fiber length, greater durability), renewable bioenergy (good fiber length) and pulp (high fiber content) and could be valued to supplement the wood supply from natural forest and contribute to mitigating the effect of climate change (carbon sequestration and limitation of pressure on natural forests).</p> Jesugnon Fifamè Murielle Féty TONOUEWA Samadori Sorotori Honoré Biaou Kwadwo Boakye Boadu Eméline Sêssi Pélagie Assèdé Douglas Amoah Emmanuel Ebanyenle Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-29 2023-05-29 29 1 103213 Parameter testing and application of the 3PG model for Eucalyptus grandis x Urophylla in subtropical conditions in South Africa <p><strong>Background:</strong> The productivity of the coastal Zululand region, which was known as the South African breadbasket for fibre is declining. Climate-related changes are a significant factor contributing to this decline. The 3PG (Physiological Processes Predicting Growth) model was calibrated for<em> E. grandis</em><br />x<em> E. urophylla hybrids</em> planted in this region to quantify the effect of climate variation x site on their growth and survival. Monthly weather data for the ungauged plantations were estimated using the Random Forest (RF) supervised learning algorithm. A dataset consisting of 17 permanent sample<br />plots (PSPs) and published parameter values for this hybrid in various regions of Brazil were utilized for parameter estimation. Using a parsimonious optimization approach, we developed a novel method called extended Root Mean Square Error (eRMSE) to select the optimal parameter set.<br /><strong>Result:</strong> The new parameter set yielded accurate predictions for three key variables; quadratic stem diameter (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.85, E = 0.73), mean height (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.84, E = 0.78), and basal area (R2 = 0.87, E = 0.78). Model performance at 15 independent sites allowed the comparison with three other Brazilian parameter sets for stand volume prediction at a specific age. The optimized parameter set provided a satisfactory, albeit slightly overestimated stand volume (V (m3ha-1), R<sup>2</sup> = 0.65, E = -0.32) at the validation sites.<br /><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The 3PG model can be adapted with parameter set from another region to characterize the growth of <em>E.grandis</em> x <em>E.urophylla</em> stands in South Africa.</p> Oluwaseun Friday Gakenou Kim Cordwint Martin Ilaria Germishuizen David Michael Drew Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-30 2023-10-30 29 1 103236 Prediction of the basic density of tropical woods by near-infrared spectroscopy <p><strong>Background:</strong> Determining the basic density of the wood is usually defined as a simple process, but it requires caution and the operator’s skill to avoid errors in the analysis. In addition, it involves sample preparation and time to saturate the wood until obtaining the dry sample mass. The development of alternative measurement techniques could reduce the time to obtain the results and provide reliable values. Therefore, this study aimed to develop multivariate models to estimate the basic density of native woods using near-infrared spectra (NIR). Basic densities were determined by the water immersion method, and the values were associated with NIR signatures. Spectra were directly collected on the wood transversal and radial faces with an integrating sphere. Partial least squares regression (PLS-R) was calibrated and validated to estimate basic density based on spectral signatures.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> In the cross-validation and prediction of the models, the results were promising. The coefficients of determination varied from 0.87 to 0.93 with a standard error of 0.01 %. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) efficiently classified the wood species. The ratio of performance to deviation obtained satisfactory values, a minimum of 2.81 and a maximum of 4.20.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The statistical parameters of the models based on NIR spectra showed potential for density measurements in floors, furniture, and solid wood products.</p> Dayane Targino Medeiros Rafael Rodolfo de Melo Pedro Henrique Gonçalez Cademartori Felipe Gomes Batista Adriano Reis Prazeres Mascarenhas Mario Vanoli Scatolino Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-30 2023-10-30 29 1 103262 ESTIMATING THE COMMERCIAL VOLUME OF A Pinus taeda L. PLANTATION USING ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SENSORS <p><strong>Background: </strong>The objective of this study was to estimate the wood volume of a <em>Pinus taeda</em> L. plantation using variables extracted from the Sentinel-1 active sensor and the Sentinel-2 passive sensor. To do so, data from a forest inventory with rectangular plots of 550 m² were used to estimate the stand volume. We derived and adapted average vegetation indices per plot from images obtained by Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 sensors. The data were then correlated with the volume per plot based on the forest inventory. The Modified Radar Forest Degradation Index (mRDFI) showed the highest correlation for Sentinel-1 data, while the Difference Vegetation-Index (DVI) performed best for Sentinel-2.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>The regression models were built using Stepwise modeling, demonstrating that the models fit with only the Sentinel-2 indices performed better than the others (indices adapted for Sentinel-1 and a combination of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data), with an R² adjusted between 0.51 to 0.40 and a standard error (Syx%) of 3.66 to 8.97. According to the statistical analyses, we found no significant differences between the volume estimated by the forest inventory (12.56±1.17) and the remote sensing techniques used (Sentinel-2 with 12.56±1.03 and Sentinel-1 with 12.56±0.94). However, further tests should be conducted with other active sensors operating in different spectral bands and polarization modes for other forest species.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>We found no significant differences between the volumetric estimates derived from remote sensing data and forest inventory techniques.</p> Carla Talita Pertille Marcos Felipe Nicoletti Mário Dobner Jr Copyright (c) 2023 2023-01-18 2023-01-18 29 1 103108 Comparative RNA-Seq analysis of Betula platyphylla under low and high temperature stresses <p><strong>Background</strong>: <em>Betula platyphylla</em> Sukaczev is one of important tree species due to its ecological and economic value. It is a cold-tolerant tree species which also faces heat stress during summer. In the current study, RNA-Seq profiling of two-month-old <em>B. platyphylla</em> seedlings were conducted utilizing the MGISEQ-2000 platform.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> In total, 856,347,961 clean reads were obtained from 26 RNA-Seq libraries. Totally, 822,552,820 reads were successfully mapped to <em>B. platyphylla</em> reference genome. Further, a total of 360 and 264 DEGs were discovered under cold and heat exposure, respectively, while a total of 104 DEGs were identified under both cold and heat exposure. It was found that several pathways<br />including response to cold, response to heat, response to temperature stimulus, response to stress, lipid metabolic, jamonic acid and ethylene, even developmental processes were significantly enriched in GO enrichment analysis of cold and heat stress in biological process term. Several transcription factors (TFs), including MYB66, CBF2, bHLH96and bZIP7 take a pivotal role in response to temperature stresses. Furthermore, heat shock proteins were identified under cold and heat stress, respectively, suggesting these genes participate in reducing cold and heat stress detrimental effect by interacting with TFs or other genes related to abiotic stresses, chlorophyll and photosynthesis, osmoprotectants, and phytohormone as well.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study not only underlying <em>B. platyphylla</em>’s molecular mechanism in response to temperature stresses but also provides candidate genes involved in response to temperature stresses.</p> Faujiah Nurhasanah Ritonga Song Chen Fitri Indriani Runxian Song Xiang Zhang Xingguo Lan Su Chen Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-12 2023-09-12 29 1 103147 Change in oleoresin productivity between harvests and variable drillings of a Copaifera reticulata natural population in the Amazon <p><strong>Background:</strong> Many gaps in the copaifera oleoresin yield remain unfulfilled, preventing the sustainable management of this valuable non-timber forest product. This work aimed to characterize a natural <em>Copaifera reticulata</em> population in the Amazon rainforest, test different positions and depths in the trees to flow oleoresin, and analyze changes in the productiveness between two harvests ten months spaced. The study was conducted in a Brazilian rainforest area at the Jari Ecological Station (ESEC) in 2017 and 2018, including 26 trees.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The diametric and height distributions evidenced light-demanding and mostly medium class-diameter trees. The annual increment (0.45 ± 0.003 cm/year) was average, while the occurrence was rare. The area hosts yielding and unyielding trees, providing an average oleoresin production of 603.60 mL/tree. Oleoresin only flowed by reaching the inner heartwood or the pith. Oleoresin was not fully replenished after ten months, but the first drilling stimulated some unyielding trees to deliver it later. Collecting should focus on medium-diameter trees.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The growth and distribution behaviors may challenge Copaifera’s sustainable management, which depends on the individual tree mechanisms to provide and replenish the oleoresin.</p> Lina Bufalino João Nelson Nascimento Silva-Junior Ana Claudia Lira Guedes Marcelino Carneiro Guedes Copyright (c) 2023 2022-04-10 2022-04-10 29 1 103183 Appraisal of arp images and machine learning to detect Sapajus nigritus attacks on loblolly’s pine stands in Southern Brazil <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study aimed to evaluate UAV images of <em>Pinus taeda L.</em> stands for classifying trees attacked by<em> Sapajus nigritus</em> in Southern Brazil. UAV images were acquired on March 2018, using a DJI Phantom Pro 4 over 18.73 hectares. We evaluated different band compositions and vegetation indices. Using photo interpretation based on the color of the crown and field measurements, the<br />trees were manually labeled as not attacked, dead, and attacked. The classified trees were divided into training (75%) and validation (25%), considering three tree crown diameters (0.5, 1, and 1.5 m) and three region-oriented classification algorithms. The classification accuracy was assessed by overall accuracy and the kappa index.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 3,773 trees were manually detected, of which 39% were attacked, 5% died and 56% were not attacked. The results also indicated that the best-chosen diameter was 0.5 meters, the best classifier algorithm was the SVM, and the highest accuracy was represented by the composition of the ExG index associated with the original spectral bands.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We argue that the attacks can be monitored using UAV images and such results provide insights for forest management initiatives.</p> Carla Talita Pertille Marcos Benedito Schimalski Veraldo Liesenberg Vilmar Picinatto Filho Mireli Moura Pitz Fabiani das Dores Abati Miranda Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-26 2023-05-26 29 1 103208 Mycorrhizas obtained from by clay extraction and green manure effect on the growth and nutrition of eucalypts grown in mining area substrate <p><strong>Background:</strong> Clay extraction sites result from mining activities they present sterile, compacted and low-nutrient soils. They have been housing eucalypts crops for wood production. Their management, together with green manure inoculated with symbiont microorganisms, can increase the efficiency of nutrient uptake and reduce the need for chemical fertilization. The aim of the present study is to assess the growth and uptake of macronutrients by Eucalyptus grandis seedlings grown in substrate<br />from clay extraction sites, based on intercropping system farming, with green manure inoculated with rhizobia and/or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs). The experiment followed a completely randomized design, with three repetitions, and the following treatments: cultivation of eucalypt (no intercropping) inoculated, or not, with AMFs; eucalypt intercropping system with <em>Canavalia ensiformis</em> Lam. or <em>Canavalia brasiliensis</em> Mart ex Benth., inoculated, or not, with AMF´s and/or rhizobia. Isolates of the symbiont microorganism were collected from spontaneous plants grown in clay extraction-site soils. Eucalypt seedlings and green manure were grown, together, in 6 L pots filled with substrate from clay extraction sites. Green manure shoot was cut 45 days after cultivation and eucalypt was harvested 60 days after it.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> Inoculation with AMF´s+ rhizobia reduced the C:N ratio and increased N and P acquisition by <em>C. ensiformis</em>.<br /><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Inoculation of native AMFs from the clay extraction site was effective in boosting the growth and nutrient acquisition of eucalypt plants grown in this substrate, in cultivation intercropped, or not, with <em>C. ensiformis</em> or <em>C. brasiliensis</em>. It also reduced visible symptoms of nutritional deficiency. Ca, Mg and K concentration in eucalypt plants was not changed by green manure cultivation or by<br />inoculation with AMFs or rhizobia.</p> José Olívio Lopes Vieira Júnior Luciana Aparecida Rodrigues Marco Antônio Martins Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-12 2023-09-12 29 1 103229 Forest resource management system based on blockchain <p><strong>Background</strong>: With the reduction of global forest resources and the intensification of environmental problems, it is particularly important to seek new solutions for forest resource management. This paper proposes a forest resource management system based on blockchain technology to realize data security sharing and traceability of forest ownership. Through drone on-site verification and<br />blockchain technology, management credibility and efficiency are improved and costs are reduced. The system provides innovative solutions in terms of data credibility, cooperation mechanism, intelligent decision-making, sustainable development, etc., and defines the future development direction.</p> Lina Zhang Hepeng Qu Kun Liu Yandi Wang Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-12 2023-09-12 29 1 103259 Organic waste and controlled-release fertilizer maximize the growth of Citharexylum montevidense in nursery and in the field <p><strong>Background:</strong> The increase in agricultural production requires sustainable alternatives development for reusing the waste generated, such as bovine manure, to obtain ecological, environmental, and economic benefits. In addition, proper fertilization is one of the main steps in the production of forest species seedlings. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the effect of different substrates formulations based on bovine manure and types of fertilizers on the quality of <em>C. montevidense</em> seedlings and verify if the field confirms the nurseries' responses. The treatments consisted of three BM-based substrates combinations (S0 - control, no manure; S30 – 30 % BM; and S60 – 60 % BM) and four types of base fertilizers [Control: no fertilizer, FRF - Fast Release Fertilizer (NPK + fritted trace elements), FRF2 - twice as used in FRF and CRF - Controlled Release Fertilizer]. The substrates quality and the seedlings' morphophysiological attributes were determined 160 days after sowing, then conducting the best treatments to the field.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We verified that the use of bovine manure improved the physical and chemical properties of the substrates. For the <em>C. montevidense</em> cultivation, 30 % BM plus CRF provided the best seedling development. The substrate used in the seedlings production influenced the post-planting performance of <em>C. montevidense</em>, and the bovine manure use allows for more significant plant growth in the field.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>For the cultivation of <em>Citharexylum montevidense</em>, it is recommended to use substrates composed of 30 % of bovine manure, associated with 6 g L<sup>-1</sup> of controlled-release fertilizer, as it provides higher quality seedlings in shorter production time in the nursery.</p> Adriana Maria Griebeler Maristela Machado Araujo Felipe Turchetto Álvaro Luis Pasquetti Berghetti Daniele Guarienti Rorato Maria Helena Fermino Suelen Carpenedo Aimi Claudia Costella Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 29 1 103003 A Dendrometric and Wood Anatomical Properties of Pinus sylvestris and Quercus petraea in Managed and Unmanaged Forests <p><strong>Background:</strong> Climate change is a serious problem in forest ecosystems and it is required to manage<br />forest stability, resilience, and vitality truly sustainable in future climatic conditions. Particularly trees<br />are one of the crucial components in the forest ecosystem since they are exposed to climate change-induced<br />range shifts during their growth and development. The present study, therefore, investigated<br />how dendrometric, tree ring widths and anatomical variables of Scots pine and Sessile oak trees<br />showed variations between managed and unmanaged forests.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Both Scots pine and Sessile oak trees indicated great variance in their dendrometric, tree ring<br />width, and anatomical properties between managed and unmanaged forests. In this study, Scots pine<br />showed taller trees in unmanaged forests, while Sessile oak forests did not show the difference in stem<br />heights between managed and unmanaged forests. Stand characteristics revealed different patterns<br />between managed and unmanaged forests; unmanaged forests revealed greater stand stability than<br />managed forests for both Scots pine and Sessile oak trees. Managed forests of both Scots pine and<br />Sessile oak trees indicated greater stem diameters than unmanaged forests. Dendrometric results also<br />showed differences in managed and unmanaged forests since tree ring widths of Scots pine and Sessile<br />oak trees had more than 1.5 times wider tree rings in managed forests than in unmanaged forests.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> In this study, managed forests of Scots pine and Sessile oak showed greater stand<br />characteristics and dendrometric traits than unmanaged forests. It may be suggested that managed forests<br />can ensure better growth and development environment for particularly Scots pine and Sessile oak trees.</p> Seray Özden Keleş Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-20 2023-10-20 29 1 103266 Investigation of the efficiency of MaxEnt, topsis and invest models on site suitability and decline potential of Persian oak forests in Zagros, Iran (Ilam Province) <p><strong>Background:</strong> Over the last decade, a significant area of Zagros forests, especially in Ilam Province, west of Iran, has been affected by the phenomenon of oak decline. The most basic item for fighting the decline of these forests is to know site suitability, the parameters affecting it, determining the criteria affecting the decline and preparing a map of the decline potential of these forests. In this study, the efficiency of Maxent on preparing site suitability map of Dalab and Bankol and the most important criteria affecting P.Oak decline was investigated by TOPSIS. The integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs (InVEST) was used to prepare a zoning map of decline potential of P.Oak site. Validation of maps was done with receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and field visits.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that pc-forest, distance from rivers and temperature are the most important criteria of the distribution of P.Oak. In addition, many parts of both sites were found to lack site suitability. The results of TOPSIS showed that the most important criteria of P.Oak decline are socio-economic criteria.<br /><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Decline potential in Bankol was much higher and the pressure caused by stressful criteria was higher in this site. The results showed 6 general stresses of land use change, grazing, pests, charcoal disease, fires and tourism in two sites. Dalab has shown a better condition in terms of decline potential. The reason for this is the operation of conservation management in this site. The obtained results show the efficiency of the used methods.</p> Mohammad Javad Moradi Hadi Kiadaliri Sasan Babaie Kafaky Hossein Bakhoda Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-16 2023-05-16 29 1 103135 ALLOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ABOVE-GROUND BIOMASS INCREMENT AND STAND CHARACTERISTICS FOR CRIMEAN PINE IN TAŞKÖPRÜ, TURKEY <p><strong>Background:</strong> Biomass increment, one of the main components of net primary production (NPP) in forest ecosystems, plays an important role as well as total biomass in the global carbon cycle. In this study, the changes of increments of the above-ground total, stem and branch biomasses depending on stand characteristics (i.e., stand age, stand density, and site index) were investigated, and these relations were modeled for Crimean pine (<em>Pinus nigra </em>J.F.Arnold subsp. <em>pallasiana </em>(Lamb.) Holmboe) stands in Taşköprü region of Türkiye. Data were obtained from 109 sample trees within 74 sample plots representing the wide range of possible stand characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The equations developed for above-ground total, stem and branch biomass increments have quite high coefficients of determination (<em>R<sup>2</sup></em>=0.784, 0.684 and 0.780, respectively), whereas low root mean square errors (<em>RMSE</em>=0.749, 0.692 and 0.116, respectively). The results indicated that the biomass increment estimates from the allometric equations developed were decreasing with stand age and increasing with stand density and site index and also stand density is the strongest stand characteristic on biomass increment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The estimates are also consistent with the growth patterns, so the equations can be used for biomass increment estimations and also for carbon storage and NPP projections for Crimean pine stands of the region.</p> Fadime Sağlam Oytun Emre Sakici Copyright (c) 2023 2023-04-26 2023-04-26 29 1 103169 Although it lacks connectivity, isolated urban forest fragments can deliver similar amounts of ecosystem services as in protected areas <p><strong>Backgrounds:</strong> Urban forests can provide citizens with various types and quantities of ecosystem services. However, the contribution of isolated forest fragments to this process and its value are not well understood. Therefore, our main goal was to analyze the patterns of ecosystem service delivery by three forest fragments along an urban-to-rural gradient. Carbon storage was estimated using three different models (general and local), with input variables such as diameter at breast height (DBH), total height, and wood density. Rainfall interception was assessed using water collectors placed inside the forest fragment, at the border, and outside, throughout the four seasons. Data were collected from three forest fragments of different types (urban, periurban, and rural), each covering an area of 1.0 hectare.<br /><strong>Results</strong>: Isolated forest fragments did not significantly differ (p&gt;0.01) in terms of carbon stocks compared to a protected area. The urban fragment had a carbon stock of 33.70 mg.ha-1, while the rural fragment had a carbon stock of 37.19 mg.ha-1. Regarding rainfall interception, there were no significant differences (p&gt;0.01) among the forest fragments. The highest average rainfall interception<br />percentage (58.65%) was observed during the summer. The capacity for rainfall interception changed from the border (lower) to the center of the fragment (higher) in a similar manner for both isolated and connected forest fragments.<br /><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Isolated Forest fragments can provide ecosystem services (carbon storage and rainfall interception) in the same way as connected forest fragments in the periurban and rural places, like in protected areas. It highlights the importance of promoting the protection of forests fragments in cities.</p> Jéssica Thalheimer de Aguiar Flávia Gizele König Brun Pedro Higuchi Rogério Bobrowski Copyright (c) 2023 2023-09-05 2023-09-05 29 1 103193 Characterization of raw and thermochemically-treated mesocarp fibers of Oenocarpus bataua, an Amazon palm <p><strong>Background:</strong> Patauá (Oenocarpus bataua Mart.) is a palm tree belonging to the botanical family Arecaceae that occurs throughout the Amazon. Like açaí, an edible pulp is extracted from its fruits, remaining a fiber-rich waste. Revealing the potential of such raw or thermochemically modified fibers for producing bioproducts is a novelty in the literature. Therefore, this work aimed to characterize patauá fibers in natural and alkali-treated conditions to support future bioproduct applications. Alkaline treatments were performed under mechanical stirring combining two NaOH levels (5 and 10%) and two temperatures (80 and 100°C). Morphological characterization was performed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The contents of the structural and non-structural chemical components were determined, and chemical groups were evaluated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The physical characterization included moisture content, apparent density, and water absorption tests.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The macerate revealed short fibers with typical elongated morphology, mean cell wall thickness (4.10 μm) greater than the mean lumen width (3.01 μm), and mean length of 445 μm. The alkaline treatments partially individualized the fibers from bundles, cleaned extractives from the surface, and unblocked superficial pits by removing silica-rich structures. They substantially removed<br />non-cellulosic components, but FTIR showed condensed lignin exposed on the fiber surface. Density and water uptake increased concerning natural fibers. Patauá’s short length and susceptibility to modification through thermochemical treatments that concentrated cellulose up to 50% indicated great potential for developing composites and nanofibers. Regardless of the NaOH content, 100°C was more efficient in concentrating cellulose.<br /><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Patauá fibers have unique natural characteristics. They occur as flatted fiber bundles, have silicon-rich structures obstructing their superficial pits, and comprise more lignin than cellulose. </p> Orimax Monteiro Cruz Matheus Cordazzo Dias Dhimitrius Neves Paraguassú Smith de Oliveira Marcela Gomes da Silva Tiago Marcolino de Souza Lourival Marin Mendes Lays Camila Matos Lina Bufalino Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-16 2023-05-16 29 1 103219