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This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown in Brazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants. Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elastic constants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65 years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All the experimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –with conventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compression and tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus of elasticity was 10 (EL/ER≈ 10) and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity) was 20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20). These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoretical modeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.