Main Article Content
Wood is a natural material that presents a great variation of properties. Many treatments have been developed in order to extend the service life of wood products. Nowadays, products with low toxicity and economic viability are a challenge to researchers. Nanotechnology has been indicated as a solution to this issue, since wood preservatives can be utilized in low concentration, promoting satisfactory results in terms of protection with no color changes. The main goal of this review is to present nanotechnology advances on wood protection. Self-cleaning surfaces, scratch and weathering resistance, and biocides properties have been achieved through nanoparticles applications. Studies evaluating the performance of nanoparticles from silver, boron, cupper, zinc, zinc oxide, zinc borate, and titanium dioxide, with or without acrylic emulsion on wood protections have reported promising findings. Tests performed against termites, rot, mold and stain fungi, and UV degradation have demonstrated that some biocides have their properties improved in nanoscale, while others do not present the same biocidal properties. Controlled release and encapsulation technologies are another important matter once it can increase the effectiveness of wood treatments. Nanoparticles risk assessment for human health and the environment are still incipient. Despite of that, nanozinc oxide and nanotitanium dioxide present encouraging potential. Nanozinc oxide has been reported as a promising antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agent, able to control several kinds of cancer cells. On the other hand, nanotitanium dioxide had lower ecotoxicity impacts to the environment than silver. Based on this review, we consider wood treatments based on nanoparticles might play an important role in the next generation of wood protection systems.