Technological properties of plywood bonded with phenol-formaldehyde resol resin modified with bio-oil

Main Article Content

Nadir Ayrilmis Günay Özbay

Abstract

Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resol resins were produced by substituting up to 20 wt% of phenol with bio-oil by modifying the chemical synthesis process. Pine sawdust was converted into renewable chemical feedstock for the production of bio-oil modified PF resins. FT-IR analysis was performed to characterize the organic functional groups in bio-oil modified PF resins. In comparison to a commercial and lab-made PF resins, the bio-oil modified PF resins were found to have larger average molecular weights, higher polydispersity indices and shorter gel times. The plywood composites produced with bio-oil modified PF resin up to 20 wt% had better mechanical properties and wet bond strength as compared to commercial and lab-made PF resins.

Article Details

How to Cite
AYRILMIS, Nadir; ÖZBAY, Günay. Technological properties of plywood bonded with phenol-formaldehyde resol resin modified with bio-oil. CERNE, [S.l.], v. 23, n. 4, p. 493-500, jan. 2018. ISSN 2317-6342. Available at: <http://cerne.ufla.br/site/index.php/CERNE/article/view/1549>. Date accessed: 24 apr. 2018.
Keywords
Bio-oil, technological properties, Phenol-formaldehyde, Pyrolysis, Wood
Section
Article

References

ALMA, M.H., BASTURK, M.A., SHIRAISHI, N. Cocondensation of NaOH-catalyzed liquefied wood wastes, phenol, and formaldehyde for the production of resol-type adhesives. Industrial Engineering Chemistry Research, v. 40, p. 5036-5039, 2011

AMEN-CHEN, C., RIEDL, B., XIANGMING, W., ROY, C. Softwood bark pyrolysis oil-PF resols part 1. Resin synthesis and OSB mechanical properties. Holzforschung, v. 56, p. 167-175, 2002.

ASLAN, M., OZBAY, G., AYRILMIS, N., 2015. Adhesive characteristics and bonding performance of phenol formaldehyde modified with phenol-rich fraction of crude bio-oil. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, v. 29, p. 2679-2691, 2015.

ASTM D1084-08. Standard test methods for viscosity of adhesives. West Conshohocken, PA, ASTM International, 2008.

ASTM D3529M-97. Standard Test Method for Matrix Solids Content and Matrix Content of Composite Prepreg, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008.

AYDIN, I., COLAKOGLU, G., HIZIROGLU, S. Surface characteristics of spruce veneers and shear strength of plywood as a function of log temperature in peeling process International Journal of Solids and Structures, v. 43, p. 6140-6147, 2006.

BEKHTA, P., ORTYNSKA, G., SEDLIACIK, J.. Properties of modified phenol-formaldehyde adhesive for plywood panels manufactured from high moisture content veneer. Drvna Industria, v. 65, p. 293-301, 2014.

CHEN, M., WANG, J., ZHANG, M., CHEN, M., ZHU, X., MIN, F., TAN, Z. Catalytic effects of eight inorganic additives on pyrolysis of pine wood sawdust by microwave heating. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, v. 82, p. 145-150, 2008

EN 310. Determination of modulus of elasticity in bending and bending strength, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 1993.

EN 314-1. Plywood - bond quality – test methods. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 2004.

HIMMELBLAU, D.A., GROZDITS, G.A.. Production of wood composite adhesives with air-blown, fluidized-bed pyrolysis oil. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK; 1991

JUNMING, X., JIANCHUN, J., WEI, L. Preparation of novolacs using phenolic rich components as partial substitute of phenol from biomass pyrolysis oils. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, v. 24, p. 251-257, 2010.

NGO, T.A., KIM, J., KIM, S.S.. Fast pyrolysis of palm kernel cake using a fluidized bed reactor: design of experiment and characteristics of bio-oil. Journal of Industrial Engineering Chemistry, v. 19, p. 137–143, 2013.

OZBAY, G. Catalytic pyrolysis of pine wood sawdust to produce bio-oil: effect of temperature and catalyst additives. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, v. 35, p. 302-313, 2015.

OZBAY, G., AYRILMIS, N. Bonding performance of wood bonded with adhesive mixtures composed of phenol-formaldehyde and bio-oil. Industrial Crops and Products, v. 66, p. 68-72, 2014.

ROY, C., LIU, X., PAKDEL, H. Process for the production of phenolic-rich pyrolysis oils for use in making phenol–formaldehyde resole resins, US Patent 6143856, Pyrovac Technologies Inc., 2000.

SUKHBAATAR, B., STEELE, P.H., INGRAM, L.I., KIM, M.G. Use of lignin separated from bio-oil in oriented strand board binder phenol-formaldehyde resins. Bioresources, v. 4, p. 789-804, 2009.

TEJADO, A., PENA, C., LABIDI, J., ECHEVERRIA, J.M., MONDRAGON, I. Physico-chemical characterization of lignins from deferent sources for use in phenol–formaldehyde resin synthesis. Bioresource Technology, v. 98, p. 1655-1663, 2007

TROSA, A. A no-aldehyde emission hardener for tannin-based wood adhesives for exterior panels. Holz Als Roh Und Werkstoff, v. 59, p. 266-271, 2001.

VÁZQUEZ, G. Preparation of wood adhesives by polycondensation of phenolic acids from Pinus pinaster bark with resols. Holz Als Roh Und Werkstoff, v. 47, p. 491-494, 1989.

VÁZQUEZ, G. Curing. kinetics of tannin-phenol-formaldehyde adhesives as determined by DSC. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, v. 70, p. 19-28, 2002.

WANG, M., LEITCH, M., XU, C.C. Synthesis of phenolic resol resins using cornstalk-derived bio-oil produced by direct liquefaction in hot-compressed phenol-water. Journal of. Industrial Engineering Chemistry, v. 15, p. 870-875, 2009.

WANG, M., WEI, L., ZHAO, T. Cure study of addition-cure-type and condensation-addition-type phenolic resins. European Polymer Journal, v. 41, p. 903-912, 2005.

WANG, W., ZHAO, Z., GAO, Z., GUO, M. Whey protein-based water resistant and environmentally safe adhesives for plywood. BioResources, 6, 3339-3351, 2011.

WANG, Z., WANG, F., CAO, J. Pyrolysis of pine wood in a slowly heating fixed-bed reactor: Potassium carbonate versus calcium hydroxide as a catalyst. Fuel Processing Technology, v. 91, p. 942-950, 2010.

YI, J., ZHANG, J., YAO, S., CHANG, J., LI, B. Preparation of bio-oil-phenol-formaldehyde resins from biomass pyrolysis oil. Applied Mechanics and Materials, v. 174-177, p. 1429-1432, 2012.

ZHAO, Y., YAN, N., FENG, M. Characterization of phenol–formaldehyde resins derived from liquefied lodgepole pine barks. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, v. 30, p. 689-695, 2010.

ZHAO, Y. Development of bio-based phenol formaldehyde resol resins using mountain pine beetle ınfested lodgepole pine barks. Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, Canada, 2013.