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This study has investigated the genetic variation for silvicultural traits in an open-pollinated progeny test of Astronium graveolens Jacq., established at Luiz Antônio Experimental Station (State of São Paulo, Brazil). The trial was planted in a random block experimental design, containing 23 families, six replications and five plants per plot. The traits measured were diameter at breast height (DBH), total height and stem form. The assessments were taken at the age of 19 years. Significant differences were not detected by the analysis of variance, suggesting that the genetic variation was low, as well as the probability to raising genetic gains through selection among progenies. The coefficient of genetic variation was moderate for the traits height (8.2%) and DBH (21.2%) and low to stem form (4.0%). However, the average coefficient of heritability among progenies was low for all studied traits (ranging from 0.02 to 0.15), confirming the low probability of genetic improvement of this population by selection among progenies.