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This study evaluated tree community structure and floristic composition of an alluvial lowland forest at Campos dos Goytacazes, north of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Tree community (DBH 3.2 cm) was sampled using the Point Centered-Quarter (84 points, 336 trees). 105 species of 35 families were found. The richest families were Leguminosae (18 species), Euphorbiaceae (7), Lauraceae (6) and Rubiaceae (6). The values of basal area (17.3 m2.ha 1) and Shannon s species diversity (H = 4.02 nats.ind-1) were similar to others secondary forests in the region. When compared to other forest at the region, the Bom Jesus forest showed stronger floristic relationships with semideciduous forests (Tabuleiro forests), especially those under the same climate and disturbance conditions. Considering the extensively fragmented landscape and the ecological importance of this remnant for the maintenance of the tree species diversity in this region, this forest renmant should be among the priorities for conservation and management programs.