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Phenological studies are important to understand the dynamics in forest ecosystems and also to enable adequate management of their native species. In the Cerrado regions of the high Rio Grande river (south of Minas Gerais State), Caryocar brasiliense species is found in highly distinct morphological forms with variable phenology. The aim of this study was to investigate phenological patterns within and between populations of both the tree and shrub forms of the individuals and to determine any correlation with abiotic factors. Thirty-five observations of the phenophases of the vegetative and reproductive stages were recorded every two weeks for 12 months. The activity index was analyzed for each stage and further analyzed to see if there were associations with the climate data by using Spearman’s linear correlation. The species was deciduous but leaf growth became retarded during the dry season, at which point leaf flushing stopped and total leaf fall occurred throughout the rainy season. The flowering and the fruit production occurred in the rainy season. The reproductive phase can be either annual or sub-annual. The activity index showed high synchronism within populations during the first flowering in all populations studied (> 80%). Flowering and mature fruits were highly synchronized according to Spearman correlations. Tree and shrub individuals of C. brasiliense had very similar times for their phenophases. The best period for collecting mature fruits in these regions is between February and March.