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The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal decomposition profile of 10 wood species from the semi-arid region of Brazil using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to investigate their potential as biomass energy sources. First, flash carbonization was carried out in a muffle furnace, in which wood samples were heated to a maximum temperature of 500 °C, and the product yields were determined. TGA was performed using sawdust samples heated at 10 °C min−1 up to 1000 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere at a flow rate of 50 mL min−1. The thermal decomposition profile was used to evaluate which wood species was more thermally stable. Mimosa tenuiflora and Poincianella pyramidalis woods were the most suitable as biomass energy sources for charcoal production because of their thermal stability and good charcoal yields. The thermal stability of the 10 wood samples was confirmed by the analysis of the carbonization yields.