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Cellulosic ethanol is one of the most important biotechnological products to mitigate the consumption of fossil fuels and to increase the use of renewable resources for fuels and chemicals. Short rotation woody crops (SRWC) have been proposed as the most promising raw material for cellulosic ethanol production, as a result of its several advantages over traditional crops. In order to analyze the potential as crops for lignocellulosic bioethanol production in Chile, SRWC were established with the following species: Acacia melanoxylon, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens. These crops were established in two contrasting environments and in three plantation densities. The average theoretical ethanol yield at 48 months reached 395.9 L.t-1 for A. melanoxylon, 348.7 L.t-1 for E. camaldulensis, and 363.9 L t-1 for E. nitens. It can be concluded that there are significant differences in polysaccharides yield between species and time. On the other hand, significant differences were found between environments. In conclusion, this study has shown that the choice of SRWC species used as a source of polysaccharides must take into account the percentage content in biomass and, crucially, the species, planting density, harvest cycle and site must be carefully selected to ensure a high biomass yield per unit area.