1- IMPORTANCE OF WOOD DRYING TO THE FOREST TRANSPORT AND PULP MILL SUPPLY
Antonio Jose Vinha Zanuncio, Amelia Guimaraes Carvalho, Marcela Gomes da Silva, José Tarcisio Lima
The forest transportation represents a great proportion of raw material cost for pulp and paper production and, for this reason, the wood moisture content should be low to reduce these cost. The objective was to relate the wood moisture with fuel consumption per kilometer in each vehicle and the number of trips to supply a pulp mill. Three trees of Eucalyptus urophylla clone and three of Corymbia citriodora from seeds were used. These trees were felled and their logs removed from its base and at 50 and 100% of the commercial height. The basic density and initial moisture of wood were determined and the air drying monitored during 90 days. The fuel consumption to transport one ton of dry wood and the number of trips required to supply a pulp mill were estimated based on the number of air drying days. Air drying reduced the fuel consumption and the number of trips to supply the pulp mill. The accuracy of models to estimate the wood moisture, fuel consumption and the number of trips based in days of drying was high. Therefore, wood drying is an essential tool to reduce forest transport costs.
Keywords: Cellulosic pulp, Corymbia, Eucalyptus, Logs, Moisture
2- VOLUME AND TAPER EQUATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL STEMS OF Nothofagus obliqua AND N. alpina
Hernan Attis Beltran, Luis Chauchard, Ariana Iaconis, Guillermo Martinez Pastur
Timber volume of standing trees is essential information for management decisions. The increasing need to optimize the potential capacity of forests maintaining their conservation, requires the quantification of the different potential possible timber products. The aim was to adjust taper equations to determine volumes of different timber products for commercial stems of Nothofagus alpina and N. obliqua. Trees of both species were randomly selected in harvesting areas of Lanin National Park (Argentina). Trees were felled and cut into commercial logs, measuring diameter with bark at different heights up to the beginning of the crown, and for each tree the diameter at breast height and total height. Five taper equations were selected and non-linear regression processes were employed for the fittings. We obtained the volume through the integration of the stem profile equation and the rotation in the space thereof through solid of revolution. The Bennet and Swindel (1972) model was selected for both Nothofagus species, obtaining similar equation parameters and differences were observed at the top of the stems of larger trees. For this the use of an integrated model is not recommended. With the obtained equations it is possible to: (i) estimatevolume at different heights and for different commercial diameters, and (ii) predict the height at which both species reach to a certain diameter. The model presented some statistical limitations (e.g. multicollinearity), however, the fitting of the equation and the easy understanding of the outputs support it as a useful tool in a broad range of forest applications.
Keywords: Timber volume, Integration, Revolution solid, Decurrent
3- Organic matter in areas under secondary forests and pasture
Carlos Eduardo Gabriel Menezes, Roni Fernandes Guareschi, Marcos Gervasio Pereira, Lúcia Helena Cunha Anjos, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes Correia, Fabiano Carvalho Balieiro, Marisa de Cássia Piccolo
The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil carbon stock (Stock C) and bulk density, the chemical and granulometric fractions of the organic matter and the isotopic signal of the soil δ13C in forest fragments and a mixed managed pasture (MMP). The study was carried out in the municipality of Pinheiral, State of Rio de Janeiro. The evaluated areas were: fragment of secondary forest in initial stage (SFIS) with 20 years of regeneration; fragment of secondary forest in intermediate stage (SFINS), with 25 years of regeneration; advanced secondary forest fragment (SFAS) with 60 years of regeneration and mixed pasture managed (MHP). The attributes related to soil carbon showed significant responses to the effects of land degradation / recovery processes, especially for the following indicators: total organic carbon, organic matter stock and particulate organic matter. No significant alterations for humic substances, and prevalence of the humin fraction was found. The most significant changes in δ13C values occurred up to the depth of 60 cm. In the grassland area, at 0-10 cm, 67% of the carbon stock comes from C4 plants, reducing in the subsequent layers. In SFINS and SFAS areas, at 0-10 cm, the contribution of C3 plants was significant, with minor changes in depth.
Keywords: Organic carbono, Soil carbon fractions, Isotopic composition, Atlantic forest
4- QUALITY OF REACTION WOOD IN Eucalyptus TREES TILTED BY WIND FOR PULP PRODUCTION
Walter Torezani Neto Boschetti, Juarez Benigno Paes, Graziela Baptista Vidaurre, Marina Donária Chaves Arantes, João Gabriel Missia da Silva
This study aims to evaluate the quality of normal, tension and opposite wood of eucalyptus trees lengthwise, in straight and inclined stems, affected by wind action. It also aims to explain the pulping parameters resultant from the quality of the wood. The trees were grouped into four tilt ranges, ranging from 0 to 50º, and the basic density, chemical composition of the wood, and performance in kraft pulping were assessed. Normal and tension wood had similar basic densities; while for opposite wood, the density was lower, being responsible for a decrease in reaction wood density. The chemical composition of the wood was influenced by the presence of reaction wood in the stem.Tension and opposite wood showed lower levels of extractives and lignin and higher holocellulose content when compared to normal wood, with favorable wood quality for pulping. The increase in holocellulose content and the reduction of lignin and extractives content contributed positively to a more delignified pulp and reduction of the Kappa number. However, after cooking the reaction wood under the same conditions as those of normal wood, reaction wood pulping tends to have a lower screen yields. Due to differences in basic density and chemical constituents between opposite and normal wood, it is recommended not to designate the opposite wood as normal wood.
Keywords: Tension Wood, Opposite Wood, Cellulose Pulp
5- DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM BAMBOO (Bambusa vulgaris) FOR PESTICIDE REMOVAL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Gregório Mateus Santana, Roberto Carlos Costa Lelis, Emerson Freitas Jaguaribe, Rayssa de Medeiros Morais, Juarez Benigno Paes, Paulo Fernando Trugilho
Considering the water scarcity problems facing many countries, the need for water reuse can make activated carbon (AC) an essential product for modern society. In this context, to contribute with better activated carbons that could be used to serve in water treatment, this article discusses these materials production, using bamboo as raw material, and analyses their application effectiveness. The bamboo was collected, transformed into activated carbon, by simultaneous chemical and physical activations, and named H3PO4/H2OAC. The obtained material was characterized by its yield, apparent density, ash content, thermogravimetric analysis, surface area, methylene blue and iodine indexes, pH and point of zero charge analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Boehm titration method. The AC was used as adsorbent for removing the metribuzin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and furadan pesticides. The H3PO4/H2OAC had a surface area of 1196.30 m².g-1 and the obtained adsorption capacity was elevated for furadan (868.98 mg.g-1), metribuzin (756.47 mg.g-1) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (274.70 mg.g-1).
Keywords: Forest products, adsorbent development, water treatment
6- AGROFORESTRY AS A SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REGULARIZATION OF RURAL CONSOLIDATED OCCUPATIONS
Sarita Soraia de Alcântara Laudares, Luís Antônio Coimbra Borges, Patrícia Andressa de Ávila, Athila Leandro de Oliveira, Kmila Gomes da Silva, Dagmar Cristina de Alcântara Laudares
The great expectation about the New Forest Code consisted in reducing the hermeneutics distortions and increasing legal certainty for farmers. However, the new legislation raised more uncertainties and discussions, mainly because it consolidates the anthropic use and allows of low-impact activities in areas that should, by law, be kept untouched. This study aimed to survey and to describe the legislation related to protected areas on the rural area (APP and RL), to analyze the consolidated forms of use, occupation and low impact activities that can be developed in these areas, and to propose sustainable technical alternatives for interventions in the areas already consolidated and their recovery. The text is based on literature and documents, elaborated on the survey and study of legal aspects about protected areas in rural properties of Brazil and the main low-impact farming techniques, highlighting the agroforestry systems as an alternative of consolidated occupations in environmental protection areas. The text provides in an organized way the main aspects of the legislation on such areas and describes the sustainable activities allowed in APP and RL according to the flexibility of the new Forest Code.
Keywords: Brazilian Forest Code, Small farmer, Agroforest
7- COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS AND CHARCOAL MADE FROM BABASSU NUTSHELL
Thiago de Paula Protásio, Mario Guimarães Junior, Seyedmohammad Mirmehdi, Paulo Fernando Trugilho, Alfredo Napoli, Kátia Monteiro Knovack
In recent years, studies have examined the use of lignocellulosic wastes for energy generation. However, there is a lack of information on the combustibility of the residual biomass, especially the bark and charcoal of babassu nut. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to achieve the following objectives: to evaluate the combustion of the residual biomass from the babassu nut; to evaluate the combustion of charcoal produced from this biomass, considering different final carbonization temperatures; and to determine the effect of the final carbonization temperature on the thermal stability of charcoal and on its performance in combustion. Thermal analyses were performed in synthetic air. In order to evaluate the characteristics of charcoal combustion and fresh biomass, the ignition temperature (Ti), the burnout temperature (Tf), characteristic combustion index (S), ignition index (Di), time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate (tp), and ignition time (tig) were considered. The combustion of the babassu nutshell occurred in three phases and it was observed that this lignocellulosic material is suitable for the direct generation of heat. The increase in the final carbonization temperature caused an increase in the ignition temperature, as well as in the burnout temperature, the ignition time and the time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate. The results indicate that the increase in the carbonization temperature causes a decrease in combustion reactivity and, consequently, the charcoals produced at lower temperatures are easier to ignite and exhibit better performance in ignition.
Keywords: Alternative biomass; Renewable energy; Thermal analysis; Ignition
8- CLASSIFICATION OF THE INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF EUCALIPTUS USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES
Elizeu de Souza Lima, Zigomar Menezes de Souza, Rafael Montanari, Stanley Robson de Medeiros Oliveira, Lenon Henrique Lovera, Camila Viana Vieira Farhate
Eucalyptus plantation has expanded considerably in Brazil, especially in regions where soils have low fertility, such as in Brazilian Cerrados. To achieve greater productivity, it is essential to know the needs of the soil and the right moment to correct it. Mathematical and computational models have been used as a promising alternative to help in this decision-making process. The aim of this study was to model the influence of climate and physico-chemical attributes in the development of Eucalyptus urograndis in Entisol quartzipsamment soil using the decision tree induction technique. To do so, we used 30 attributes, 29 of them are predictive and one is the target-attribute or response variable regarding the height of the eucalyptus. We defined four approaches to select these features: no selection, Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS), Chi-square test (χ2) and Wrapper. To classify the data, we used the decision tree induction technique available in the Weka software 3.6. This data mining technique allowed us to create a classification model for the initial development of eucalyptus. From this model, one can predict new cases in different production classes, in which the individual wood volume (IWV) and the diameter at breast height (DBH) are crucial features to predict the growth of Eucalyptus urograndis, in addition to the presence of chemical soil components such as: magnesium (Mg+2), phosphorus (P), aluminum (Al+3), potassium (K+), potential acidity (H + Al), hydrogen potential (pH), and physical attributes such as soil resistance to penetration and related to climate, such as minimum temperature.
Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; Individual wood volume; Feature selection; Entisol quartzipsamment soil; Decision tree
9- MODELING ECOLOGICAL NICHE OF TREE SPECIES IN BRAZILIAN TROPICAL AREA
Mônica Canaan Carvalho, Lucas Rezende Gomide, Rubens Manoel dos Santos, José Roberto Soares Scolforo, Luís Marcelo Tavares de Carvalho, José Márcio de Mello
Modeling of the ecological niche of vegetal species is useful for understanding the species-environment relationship, for prediction of responses to climate changes and for correct reforestation programs and establishment of plantation’s recommendation. The objective of this work was to establish a model for the distribution of four tree species (Casearia sylvestris, Copaifera langsdorffii, Croton floribundus and Tapirira guianensis), widely used in reforestation projects in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between environmental characteristics and the occurrence of species and tested the performance of Random Forest and Artificial Neural Networks as modeling methods. These methods were evaluated by their overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Kappa, true skill statistic and the area under the receiver operating curve. The results showed the species Casearia sylvestris, Copaifera langsdorffii and Tapirira guianensis widely occurring in the state of Minas Gerais, including a broad range of environmental variables. Croton floribundus had restricted occurrence in the southern state, showing narrow environmental variation. The resulting algorithms demonstrated greater performance when modeling restricted geographic and environmental species, as well as species occurring with high prevalence in data. The algorithm Random Forest performed better for distribution modeling of all species, although the results varied for each metric and species. The maps generated had acceptable metrics and are supported by and ecological information obtained from other sources, constituting a useful tool to understand the ecology and biogeography of the target species.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks; Phytogeography; Random Forest
10- LAMINAR INCLUSION IN SUGARCANE BAGASSE PARTICLEBOARD
Stefania Lima Oliveira, Ticyane Pereira Freire, Tamires Galvão Tavares Pereira, Lourival Marin Mendes, Rafael Farinassi Mendes
The objective of this study is to assess the effect of the laminar inclusion on the physical and mechanical properties of sugarcane bagasse particleboard. We used the commercial panels of sugarcane bagasse produced in China. To evaluate the effect of the laminar inclusion was tested two wood species (Pinus and Eucalyptus) and two pressures (10 and 15 kgf.cm-2) along with a control (without laminar inclusion). The panels with laminar inclusion obtained improvements in the physical properties, with a significant reduction in the WA2h, WA24h and TS2h. There was a significant increase in the properties MOE and MOR parallel and Janka hardness, while the properties MOE and MOR perpendicular decreased significantly. The pinus and eucalyptus veneers inclusion resulted in similar results when added to the panel with a 10 kgf.cm-2 pressure. The use of 15 kgf.cm-2 pressure is not indicated for the pinus veneer inclusion in sugar cane bagasse panels. There was no effect of the pressure level when evaluating the eucalyptus veneer inclusion on the properties of the sugarcane bagasse panels.
Keywords: Lignocellulosic waste; Com-ply; Physical and mechanical properties