1- AGROFORESTRY AS A SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REGULARIZATION OF RURAL CONSOLIDATED OCCUPATIONS
Sarita Soraia de Alcântara Laudares, Luís Antônio Coimbra Borges, Patrícia Andressa de Ávila, Athila Leandro de Oliveira, Kmila Gomes da Silva, Dagmar Cristina de Alcântara Laudares
The great expectation about the New Forest Code consisted in reducing the hermeneutics distortions and increasing legal certainty for farmers. However, the new legislation raised more uncertainties and discussions, mainly because it consolidates the anthropic use and allows of low-impact activities in areas that should, by law, be kept untouched. This study aimed to survey and to describe the legislation related to protected areas on the rural area (APP and RL), to analyze the consolidated forms of use, occupation and low impact activities that can be developed in these areas, and to propose sustainable technical alternatives for interventions in the areas already consolidated and their recovery. The text is based on literature and documents, elaborated on the survey and study of legal aspects about protected areas in rural properties of Brazil and the main low-impact farming techniques, highlighting the agroforestry systems as an alternative of consolidated occupations in environmental protection areas. The text provides in an organized way the main aspects of the legislation on such areas and describes the sustainable activities allowed in APP and RL according to the flexibility of the new Forest Code
Keywords: Brazilian Forest Code, Small farmer, Agroforest
2- DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM BAMBOO (Bambusa vulgaris) FOR PESTICIDE REMOVAL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
Gregório Mateus Santana, Roberto Carlos Costa Lelis, Emerson Freitas Jaguaribe, Rayssa de Medeiros Morais, Juarez Benigno Paes, Paulo Fernando Trugilho
Considering the water scarcity problems facing many countries, the need for water reuse can make activated carbon (AC) an essential product for modern society. In this context, to contribute with better activated carbons that could be used to serve in water treatment, this article discusses these materials production, using bamboo as raw material, and analyses their application effectiveness. The bamboo was collected, transformed into activated carbon, by simultaneous chemical and physical activations, and named H3PO4/H2OAC. The obtained material was characterized by its yield, apparent density, ash content, thermogravimetric analysis, surface area, methylene blue and iodine indexes, pH and point of zero charge analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Boehm titration method. The AC was used as adsorbent for removing the metribuzin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and furadan pesticides. The H3PO4/H2OAC had a surface area of 1196.30 m².g-1 and the obtained adsorption capacity was elevated for furadan (868.98 mg.g-1), metribuzin (756.47 mg.g-1) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (274.70 mg.g-1).
Keywords: Forest products, adsorbent development, water treatment
3- IMPORTANCE OF WOOD DRYING TO THE FOREST TRANSPORT AND PULP MILL SUPPLY
Antonio Jose Vinha Zanuncio, Amelia Guimaraes Carvalho, Marcela Gomes da Silva, José Tarcisio Lima
The forest transportation represents a great proportion of raw material cost for pulp and paper production and, for this reason, the wood moisture content should be low to reduce these cost. The objective was to relate the wood moisture with fuel consumption per kilometer in each vehicle and the number of trips to supply a pulp mill. Three trees of Eucalyptus urophylla clone and three of Corymbia citriodora from seeds were used. These trees were felled and their logs removed from its base and at 50 and 100% of the commercial height. The basic density and initial moisture of wood were determined and the air drying monitored during 90 days. The fuel consumption to transport one ton of dry wood and the number of trips required to supply a pulp mill were estimated based on the number of air drying days. Air drying reduced the fuel consumption and the number of trips to supply the pulp mill. The accuracy of models to estimate the wood moisture, fuel consumption and the number of trips based in days of drying was high. Therefore, wood drying is an essential tool to reduce forest transport costs.
Keywords: Cellulosic pulp, Corymbia, Eucalyptus, Logs, Moisture
4- SOIL FERTILITY AFFECTS ELEMENTAL DISTRIBUTION IN NEEDLES OF THE CONIFER Araucaria angustifolia: A MICROANALYTICAL STUDY
Julierme Zimmer Barbosa, Valdeci Constantino, Flávio Zanette, Antonio Carlos Vargas Motta, Stephen Arthur Prior
Araucaria angustifolia is a conifer species found in South American subtropical forests that comprises less than 3% of the native vegetation and little is known concerning the accumulation of nutritional elements in its needles. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to assess the elemental distribution in needles. Needles were selected from 28 month-old plants grown in a fertilization experiment supplied with: 1) N, P, and K; 2) N and P; and 3) N and K. In microanalysis, four types of specialized needle tissues (adaxial epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and abaxial epidermis) were evaluated for elemental composition (C, O, P, K, Ca, S and Al). When crystals were detected, the concentrations of 12 elements were determined (C, O, P, K, Ca, S, Al, Fe, Mg, Na, Si, and Cl). Under low soil P and K, these elements were found in low concentrations in the epidermis, mesophyll, and crystals. Under low soil P, Ca and K accumulated in the spongy mesophyll, while under low soil K only Ca accumulated in this tissue. In addition, low soil P or K availability favored the formation of crystals; crystals under low soil K availability had more Ca and Mg. Soil P and K availability affected the distribution of elements in needles of A. angustifolia, in that type of tissue and formation of crystals were key to the nutrient dynamics in needles.
Keywords: Endangered species; Ca oxalate crystals; X-ray spectroscopy; Scanning electron microscopy
5- CLASSIFICATION OF THE INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF EUCALIPTUS USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES
Elizeu de Souza Lima, Zigomar Menezes de Souza, Rafael Montanari, Stanley Robson de Medeiros Oliveira, Lenon Henrique Lovera, Camila Viana Vieira Farhate
Eucalyptus plantation has expanded considerably in Brazil, especially in regions where soils have low fertility, such as in Brazilian Cerrados. To achieve greater productivity, it is essential to know the needs of the soil and the right moment to correct it. Mathematical and computational models have been used as a promising alternative to help in this decision-making process. The aim of this study was to model the influence of climate and physico-chemical attributes in the development of Eucalyptus urograndis in Entisol quartzipsamment soil using the decision tree induction technique. To do so, we used 30 attributes, 29 of them are predictive and one is the target-attribute or response variable regarding the height of the eucalyptus. We defined four approaches to select these features: no selection, Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS), Chi-square test (χ2) and Wrapper. To classify the data, we used the decision tree induction technique available in the Weka software 3.6. This data mining technique allowed us to create a classification model for the initial development of eucalyptus. From this model, one can predict new cases in different production classes, in which the individual wood volume (IWV) and the diameter at breast height (DBH) are crucial features to predict the growth of Eucalyptus urograndis, in addition to the presence of chemical soil components such as: magnesium (Mg+2), phosphorus (P), aluminum (Al+3), potassium (K+), potential acidity (H + Al), hydrogen potential (pH), and physical attributes such as soil resistance to penetration and related to climate, such as minimum temperature.
Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; Individual wood volume; Feature selection; Entisol quartzipsamment soil; Decision tree
6- MODELING ECOLOGICAL NICHE OF TREE SPECIES IN BRAZILIAN TROPICAL AREA
Mônica Canaan Carvalho, Lucas Rezende Gomide, Rubens Manoel dos Santos, José Roberto Soares Scolforo, Luís Marcelo Tavares de Carvalho, José Márcio de Mello
Modeling of the ecological niche of vegetal species is useful for understanding the species-environment relationship, for prediction of responses to climate changes and for correct reforestation programs and establishment of plantation’s recommendation. The objective of this work was to establish a model for the distribution of four tree species (Casearia sylvestris, Copaifera langsdorffii, Croton floribundus and Tapirira guianensis), widely used in reforestation projects in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between environmental characteristics and the occurrence of species and tested the performance of Random Forest and Artificial Neural Networks as modeling methods. These methods were evaluated by their overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Kappa, true skill statistic and the area under the receiver operating curve. The results showed the species Casearia sylvestris, Copaifera langsdorffii and Tapirira guianensis widely occurring in the state of Minas Gerais, including a broad range of environmental variables. Croton floribundus had restricted occurrence in the southern state, showing narrow environmental variation. The resulting algorithms demonstrated greater performance when modeling restricted geographic and environmental species, as well as species occurring with high prevalence in data. The algorithm Random Forest performed better for distribution modeling of all species, although the results varied for each metric and species. The maps generated had acceptable metrics and are supported by and ecological information obtained from other sources, constituting a useful tool to understand the ecology and biogeography of the target species.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks; Phytogeography; Random Forest
7- EFFECT OF EXTRACTIVES AND CARBONIZATION TEMPERATURE ON ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF WOOD WASTE IN AMAZON RAINFOREST
Jordão Cabral Moulin, João Rodrigo Coimbra Nobre, Jonnys Paz Castro, Paulo Fernando Trugilho, Marina Donária Chaves Arantes
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extractives soluble in hot water, besides final carbonization temperatures, on the gravimetric yield and properties of charcoal for waste of three native forest species from the Amazon region. Waste cuttings of Ipé, Grapia and Maçaranduba species, from the machine processing for joinery of a company in the State of Pará, were used. Carbonization was carried out in an adapted electric furnace with a heating rate of 1.67°C min-1 and final temperatures of 500, 600 and 700°C. The waste was carbonized fresh after extraction in hot water to remove extractives. Gravimetric yields were analyzed, as well as chemical features and high heating value. In the evaluation of the experiment, arranged in a factorial scheme with three factors (species x temperature x material with and without extraction), and Principal Component Analysis used too. The presence of extractives (soluble in hot water) from wood waste had little influence on the gravimetric yield and immediate chemical composition of charcoal; however, it showed a greater high heating value and lower contents of hydrogen and nitrogen. The increase in the final carbonization temperature reduced the gravimetric yield in charcoal, the content of volatile materials and hydrogen, with a higher content of fixed carbon, carbon and high heating value. The treatments with the best energy characteristics were obtained from Ipé and Maçaranduba charcoals with extractives produced at 600°C, in addition to Ipê and Maçaranduba charcoals with and without extractives obtained at 700°C.
Keywords: Biomass; PCA; Thermal decomposition; Energy
8- GRAZING CHANGES THE SOIL-PLANT RELATIONSHIP IN THE TREEREGENERATION STRATUM IN THE PAMPA OF SOUHTERN BRAZIL
Cristina Gouvêa Redin, Solon Jonas Longhi, José Miguel Reichert, Kelen Pureza Soares, Miriam Fernanda Rodrigues, Luciano Farinha Watzlawick
Despite being prominent in flora, the region of the Parque Estadual do Espinilho located in the Pampas of southern Brazil, where dense herbaceous stratum and isolated trees make this region suitable for livestock farming, has received little attention. The objective of the study was to analyze floristic and edaphic changes imposed by livestock farming in two areas of the park, the first under livestock grazing and the second protected from grazing (livestock-excluded) for five years. We evaluated soil physical properties of and the herbaceous aboveground biomass in order to investigate relationships with key regenerating tree species. A sampling unit of 2ha was installed in both areas, each composed of 200 subunits. Inventory of regenerating trees and herbaceous aboveground biomass, soil sampling, and soil penetration resistance tests were done in 50 subunits. The results, which were evaluated by Student’s t-test, exhibited variations between the two areas in regards to floristic and environmental factors. The abundance of the P. affinis and V. caven species and the variables of soil penetration resistance, soil bulk density, gravimetric moisture and herbaceous aboveground biomass differ significantly between the two areas. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) allows to infer that variables such as soil bulk density, penetration resistance and the abundance of V. caven species exhibit higher values in the area under gazing, while gravimetric moisture, aboveground biomass and abundance of P. affinis are higher in the area under livestock-excluded, showing that significant changes occur over just five years of livestock-excluded from the area.
Keywords: Parque do Espinilho, Natural regeneration, Livestock farming
9- LAMINAR INCLUSION IN SUGARCANE BAGASSE PARTICLEBOARD
Stefania Lima Oliveira, Ticyane Pereira Freire, Tamires Galvão Tavares Pereira, Lourival Marin Mendes, Rafael Farinassi Mendes
The objective of this study is to assess the effect of the laminar inclusion on the physical and mechanical properties of sugarcane bagasse particleboard. We used the commercial panels of sugarcane bagasse produced in China. To evaluate the effect of the laminar inclusion was tested two wood species (Pinus and Eucalyptus) and two pressures (10 and 15 kgf.cm-2) along with a control (without laminar inclusion). The panels with laminar inclusion obtained improvements in the physical properties, with a significant reduction in the WA2h, WA24h and TS2h. There was a significant increase in the properties MOE and MOR parallel and Janka hardness, while the properties MOE and MOR perpendicular decreased significantly. The pinus and eucalyptus veneers inclusion resulted in similar results when added to the panel with a 10 kgf.cm-2 pressure. The use of 15 kgf.cm-2 pressure is not indicated for the pinus veneer inclusion in sugar cane bagasse panels. There was no effect of the pressure level when evaluating the eucalyptus veneer inclusion on the properties of the sugarcane bagasse panels.
Keywords: Lignocellulosic waste; Com-ply; Physical and mechanical properties
10- SPATIALIZATION OF FRACTIONS OF ORGANIC MATTER IN SOIL IN AN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST, BRAZIL
Camila Santos da Silva, Marcos Gervasio Pereira, Rafael Coll Delgado, Shirlei Almeida Assunção
This study aimed to spatialize fractions of organic matter of soil in an agroforestry system (AFS) located in the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. Thirty-one soil samples were collected at depths of 0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm from georeferenced collection points. We determined total organic carbon (TOC), particulate carbon (COp), carbon associated with clay and silt (COam), carbon content in the fulvic acid fraction (C-FAF), humic acid fraction (C-HAF) and humin fraction (C-HUM). Semivariogram analysis and model adjustment were carried out using ArcGIS 10.2 software. Subsequently, spatial interpolation was performed using Ordinary Kriging. We observed spatial dependence for all variables except for TOC and COp at the 0-10 cm depth, which presented a pure nugget effect. It was possible to observe modifications in the distribution of humic substances in the study area. The results from this study are similar to those of other studies conducted in naive areas in the Atlantic Forest, demonstrating the benefits of using the agroforestry system.
Keywords: Labile fraction; Humic substances; Geostatistics; Soil quality indicators