1- COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS AND CHARCOAL MADE FROM BABASSU NUTSHELL
Thiago de Paula Protásio, Mario Guimarães Junior, Seyedmohammad Mirmehdi, Paulo Fernando Trugilho, Alfredo Napoli, Kátia Monteiro Knovack
In recent years, studies have examined the use of lignocellulosic wastes for energy generation. However, there is a lack of information on the combustibility of the residual biomass, especially the bark and charcoal of babassu nut. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to achieve the following objectives: to evaluate the combustion of the residual biomass from the babassu nut; to evaluate the combustion of charcoal produced from this biomass, considering different final carbonization temperatures; and to determine the effect of the final carbonization temperature on the thermal stability of charcoal and on its performance in combustion. Thermal analyses were performed in synthetic air. In order to evaluate the characteristics of charcoal combustion and fresh biomass, the ignition temperature (Ti), the burnout temperature (Tf), characteristic combustion index (S), ignition index (Di), time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate (tp), and ignition time (tig) were considered. The combustion of the babassu nutshell occurred in three phases and it was observed that this lignocellulosic material is suitable for the direct generation of heat. The increase in the final carbonization temperature caused an increase in the ignition temperature, as well as in the burnout temperature, the ignition time and the time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate. The results indicate that the increase in the carbonization temperature causes a decrease in combustion reactivity and, consequently, the charcoals produced at lower temperatures are easier to ignite and exhibit better performance in ignition.
Keywords: Alternative biomass, Renewable energy, Thermal analysis, Ignition
2- MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES ON Schizolobium parahyba VAR. Amazonicum (HUBER EX DUCKE) BARNEBY PLANTS INTOXICATED BY GLYPHOSATE
Kaléo Dias Pereira, Rafael Gomes Viana, Jonilson Ribeiro Trindade, Rafael Amaral Cardoso
The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphological and physiological changes in paricá plants (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum) intoxicated by glyphosate. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment using paricá plants during their planting stage, which were intoxicated with increasing doses of glyphosate: 0 (control); 43.2; 86.2; 129.6 and 172.8 g.ha-1. At 7 and 21 days after the application of the herbicide, the photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature were measured. The visual intoxication degree and the growth of the shoot and the root of the plants were evaluated 21 days after the application. Paricá shows symptoms of visual intoxication characterized by chlorosis/winding, evolving to necrosis/abscission of the youngest leaflets. The growth of the stem and the roots of the intoxicated plants is preserved; however, an expressive leaf loss occurs, and paricá may have adaptation mechanisms to tolerate the action of the herbicide molecule. The photosynthesis decrease promoted by an indirect action of glyphosate represents the main reduction on the growth of plants. The decrease on the stomatal conductance, which was the most sensitive physiological variable to glyphosate, resulted in lower transpiration rates, which, consequently, caused increases on the leaf temperature.
Keywords: Chemical control; Drift; Paricá; Weeds
3- SOIL FERTILITY AFFECTS ELEMENTAL DISTRIBUTION IN NEEDLES OF THE CONIFER Araucaria angustifolia: A MICROANALYTICAL STUDY
Julierme Zimmer Barbosa, Valdeci Constantino, Flávio Zanette, Antonio Carlos Vargas, Stephen Arthur Prior
Araucaria angustifolia is a conifer species found in South American subtropical forests that comprises less than 3% of the native vegetation and little is known concerning the accumulation of nutritional elements in its needles. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to assess the elemental distribution in needles. Needles were selected from 28 month-old plants grown in a fertilization experiment supplied with: 1) N, P, and K; 2) N and P; and 3) N and K. In microanalysis, four types of specialized needle tissues (adaxial epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and abaxial epidermis) were evaluated for elemental composition (C, O, P, K, Ca, S and Al). When crystals were detected, the concentrations of 12 elements were determined (C, O, P, K, Ca, S, Al, Fe, Mg, Na, Si, and Cl). Under low soil P and K, these elements were found in low concentrations in the epidermis, mesophyll, and crystals. Under low soil P, Ca and K accumulated in the spongy mesophyll, while under low soil K only Ca accumulated in this tissue. In addition, low soil P or K availability favored the formation of crystals; crystals under low soil K availability had more Ca and Mg. Soil P and K availability affected the distribution of elements in needles of A. angustifolia, in that type of tissue and formation of crystals were key to the nutrient dynamics in needles.
Keywords: Endangered species; Ca oxalate crystals; X-ray spectroscopy; Scanning electron microscopy
4- SPATIAL AND VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF LITTER AND BELOWGROUND CARBON IN A BRAZILIAN CERRADO VEGETATION
Vinícius Augusto Morais, Carla Alessandra Santos, José Márcio Mello, Hassan Camil Dadid, Emanuel José Gomes Araújo, José Roberto Soares Scolforo
Forest ecosystems contribute significantly to store greenhouse gases. This paper aimed to investigate the spatial and vertical distribution of litter, roots, and soil carbon. We obtained biomass and carbon of compartments (litter, roots, and soil) in a vegetation from Cerrado biome, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The materials were collected in 7 0.5 m² sub-plots randomly allocated in the vegetation. Root and soil samples were taken from five soil layers across the 0-100 cm depth. Roots were classified into three diameter classes: fine (<5 mm), medium (5-10 mm), and coarse (>10 mm) roots. The carbon stock was mapped through geostatistical analysis. The results indicated averages of soil carbon stock of 208.5 Mg.ha-1 (94.6% of the total carbon), root carbon of 6.8 Mg.ha-1 (3.1%), and litter of 5 Mg.ha-1 (2.3%). The root carbon was majority stored in coarse roots (83%), followed by fine (10%), and medium roots (7%). The largest portion of fine roots concentrated in the 0-10 cm soil depth, whereas medium and coarse roots were majority in the 10-20 cm depth. The largest portion of soil (53%) and root (85%) carbon were stored in superficial soil layers (above 40 cm). As conclusion, the carbon spatial distribution follows a reasonable trend among the compartments. There is a vertical relation of which the deeper the soil layer, the lower the soil and root carbon stock. Excepting the shallowest layer, coarse roots held the largest portion of carbon across the evaluated soil layers.
Keywords: Biomass and carbon stocks, Soil layers, Geostatistical analysis, Spatial dependence
5- CLASSIFICATION OF THE INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF EUCALIPTUS USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES
Elizeu de Souza Lima, Zigomar Menezes de Souza, Rafael Montanari, Stanley Robson de Medeiros Oliveira, Lenon Henrique Lovera, Camila Viana Vieira Farhate
Eucalyptus plantation has expanded considerably in Brazil, especially in regions where soils have low fertility, such as in Brazilian Cerrados. To achieve greater productivity, it is essential to know the needs of the soil and the right moment to correct it. Mathematical and computational models have been used as a promising alternative to help in this decision-making process. The aim of this study was to model the influence of climate and physico-chemical attributes in the development of Eucalyptus urograndis in Entisol quartzipsamment soil using the decision tree induction technique. To do so, we used 30 attributes, 29 of them are predictive and one is the target-attribute or response variable regarding the height of the eucalyptus. We defined four approaches to select these features: no selection, Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS), Chi-square test (χ2) and Wrapper. To classify the data, we used the decision tree induction technique available in the Weka software 3.6. This data mining technique allowed us to create a classification model for the initial development of eucalyptus. From this model, one can predict new cases in different production classes, in which the individual wood volume (IWV) and the diameter at breast height (DBH) are crucial features to predict the growth of Eucalyptus urograndis, in addition to the presence of chemical soil components such as: magnesium (Mg+2), phosphorus (P), aluminum (Al+3), potassium (K+), potential acidity (H + Al), hydrogen potential (pH), and physical attributes such as soil resistance to penetration and related to climate, such as minimum temperature.
Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; Individual wood volume; Feature selection; Entisol quartzipsamment soil; Decision tree
6- Mimosa scabrella Benth. (FABACEAE) ENHANCES THE RESTORATION IN COAL MINING AREAS IN THE ATLANTIC RAINFOREST
Vanilde Citadini-Zanette, Raquel R. B. Negrelle, Laurindo Salles Leal-Filho, Ronaldo Remor, Guilherme Alves Elias, Robson Santos
A Pilot Reclamation Project (PRP) was developed in 1982 by the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Santa Catarina-Brazil, with the objective to evaluating the adaptation of woody species to a land degraded by coal mining. After a full topographic reconstitution of the landscape, addition of nutrient load and sowing of herbaceous species, the area was split into 12 plots in which seedlings of 12 tree species were planted: three native trees [Bastardiopsis densiflora (Hook. & Arn.) Hassl., Mimosa scabrella Benth., Schizolobium parahyba (Vell.) Blake] and nine exotic species [Eucalyptus saligna Sm., E. viminalis Labill., E. citriodora Hook., Grevillea hilliana F.Muell., Hovenia dulcis Thunb, Melia azedarach L., Pinus elliottii Engelm., P. taeda L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels]. After 22 years, from the beginning of the PRP, the exotic species presented higher percentage of survival than native species; the plots which received either B. densiflora and S. parahyba or were covered only with herbaceous vegetation associated with solely a few shrubs. Conversely, the plots which received seedlings of M. scabrella displayed clear evidence of restoration in progress. The study conducted in plots that have received M. scabrella indicate an improvement of nutrient load (N, K, organic matter) in the substrate, a diversified composition of tree coverage (very similar to the nearby remnants of the Atlantic Rainforest) and other life forms, with prominent establishment of native trees with predominance of zoophilous and zoochorous species. Some characteristics of M. scabrella that could explain its outstanding capacity to enhance the restoration of the Atlantic Rainforest are also discussed along this paper.
Keywords: Biodiversity, Atlantic Rainforest, Floristic, Restoration ecology
7- MULTICRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS FOR PRIORITIZING AREAS FOR FOREST RESTORATION
Roberta Averna Valente, Felipe Coelho de Souza Petean, Carlos Alberto Vettorazzi
Urbanization process transforms original landscapes into an anthropic mosaic, causing impacts on hydrologic cycles and on landscape structure and functions. Aiming at the maintenance of the water resources and biodiversity, in an urbanized watershed, the objective of this study was the definition of priority areas for forest restoration. We used a Multicriteria Evaluation (MCE) method, following the steps: criteria definition, identification of the criteria importance, and criteria aggregation through Weighted Linear Combination (WLC). According to the experts, consulted in the context of the Participatory Technique, only two criteria represented the studied landscape: proximity to drainage network and proximity to forest patches. The first criterion was considered twice more important than the second, and through the pairwise comparison matrix, it was obtained respectively the criterion weights of 0.83 and 0.17. The priority map was obtained through the criteria aggregation, using WLC, that considered the criterion weights. The result was a priority map, indicating 5.06% of the study area with very-high priority for forest restoration; 5.22% with high priority; 5.76% with medium priority; 5,42% with low and; 78.53% with very-low priority. We can say that the framework predefined for the study proposed a scenario for priority areas that allowed driving the actions in order to obtain a landscape restoration, beginning through a forest corridor in the riparian zone. Thus, we concluded that the definition of priority areas for forest restoration is possible in an urbanized landscape, using the traditional WLC Multicriteria method.
Keywords: Urban watershed, Landscape ecology, Weighted Linear Combination, Riparian zone, Connectivity
8- SPATIALIZATION OF FRACTIONS OF ORGANIC MATTER IN SOIL IN AN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST, BRAZIL
Camila Santos da Silva, Marcos Gervasio Pereira, Rafael Coll Delgado, Shirlei Almeida Assunção
This study aimed to spatialize fractions of organic matter of soil in an agroforestry system (AFS) located in the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. Thirty-one soil samples were collected at depths of 0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm from georeferenced collection points. We determined total organic carbon (TOC), particulate carbon (COp), carbon associated with clay and silt (COam), carbon content in the fulvic acid fraction (C-FAF), humic acid fraction (C-HAF) and humin fraction (C-HUM). Semivariogram analysis and model adjustment were carried out using ArcGIS 10.2 software. Subsequently, spatial interpolation was performed using Ordinary Kriging. We observed spatial dependence for all variables except for TOC and COp at the 0-10 cm depth, which presented a pure nugget effect. It was possible to observe modifications in the distribution of humic substances in the study area. The results from this study are similar to those of other studies conducted in naive areas in the Atlantic Forest, demonstrating the benefits of using the agroforestry system.
Keywords: Labile fraction; Humic substances; Geostatistics; Soil quality indicators
9- MODELING ECOLOGICAL NICHE OF TREE SPECIES IN BRAZILIAN TROPICAL AREA
Mônica Canaan Carvalho, Lucas Rezende Gomide, Rubens Manoel dos Santos, José Roberto Soares Scolforo, Luís Marcelo Tavares de Carvalho, José Márcio de Mello
Modeling of the ecological niche of vegetal species is useful for understanding the species-environment relationship, for prediction of responses to climate changes and for correct reforestation programs and establishment of plantation’s recommendation. The objective of this work was to establish a model for the distribution of four tree species (Casearia sylvestris, Copaifera langsdorffii, Croton floribundus and Tapirira guianensis), widely used in reforestation projects in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between environmental characteristics and the occurrence of species and tested the performance of Random Forest and Artificial Neural Networks as modeling methods. These methods were evaluated by their overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Kappa, true skill statistic and the area under the receiver operating curve. The results showed the species Casearia sylvestris, Copaifera langsdorffii and Tapirira guianensis widely occurring in the state of Minas Gerais, including a broad range of environmental variables. Croton floribundus had restricted occurrence in the southern state, showing narrow environmental variation. The resulting algorithms demonstrated greater performance when modeling restricted geographic and environmental species, as well as species occurring with high prevalence in data. The algorithm Random Forest performed better for distribution modeling of all species, although the results varied for each metric and species. The maps generated had acceptable metrics and are supported by and ecological information obtained from other sources, constituting a useful tool to understand the ecology and biogeography of the target species.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks; Phytogeography; Random Forest
10- Parapiptadenia rigida MYCORRHIZATION WITH SPORES OF Scleroderma citrinum
Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen, Ricardo Bemfica Steffen, Rosana Matos de Morais, Cleber Witt Saldanha, Joseila Maldaner, Táscilla Magalhães Loiola
Ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculation in forestry seedlings aids plant establishment and growth in the field. The objectives of this study were: to determine the mycorrhizal capacity of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Scleroderma citrinum in Parapiptadenia rigida (red angico) seedlings and to evaluate the viability of a mycorrhizal inoculation technique for forest seedlings involving the use of spores. Mature spores were inoculated in the substrate (75% soil and 25% carbonized rice husk), totaling 1.5 grams of fungal spores per liter of substrate. P. rigida seeds were sown in substrates inoculated or not inoculated with fungal spores in presence or absence of Pinus echinata and Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil: not inoculated (T1), inoculated (T2), inoculated more pine essential oil (T3), inoculated more eucalyptus essential oil (T4). Seedlings of Pinus elliottii were used for a positive control of mycorrhizal inoculation (T5) and not inoculated (T6) with fungal spores. At 90 days after sowing, the base stem diameter, height, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots, percentage of root colonization and Dickson Index were determined. The presence of fungal structures in P. rigida and P. elliottii roots inoculated with S. citrinum spores was observed, demonstrating the occurrence of an ectomycorrhizal association. The application of pine and eucalyptus essential oils in the substrate increased the percentage of ectomycorrhizal colonization in P. rigida seedlings. The addition of S. citrinum mature spores in the substrate used for seedling production is a viable practice for ectomycorrhizal inoculation and it can be used in forest nurseries in controlled mycorrhization programs.
Keywords: Ectomycorrhizae; Red angico; Forestry production; Mycorrhization method; Essential oils