1-FLORISTIC COMPOSITION AND SPECIES ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTION IN TWO TERRA FIRME AREAS IN AMAZON
Ana Maria Moreira Fernandes, Maria de Lourdes Pinheiro Ruivo, Antônio Carlos Lola Costa
The studies on floristic composition are an aid in the understanding of the structure and dynamics of the plant communities, fundamental parameters for its management and conservation. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the floristic composition, species richness, Shannon’s diversity and models of species abundance over a 10-year period (2005 to 2015) in two terra firme forest areas, with and without water deficit in the soil. Data were collected in 98 subplots denominated A (control) and 98 subplots B (rainwater exclusion), each measuring 10 m x 10 m, of which plants species with diameter at breast height (DBH≥10 cm) were listed. The Fabaceae (33), Sapotaceae (27), Chrysobalanaceae (15) and Burseraceae (13) families were the most representated in the study areas. A small decrease was found in the observed species richness in area A, but the community evenness and the Shannon diversity index remained constant, and a small increase was found in the observed species richness in area B, which may have contributed to a increase in the diversity index over time. The Zipf and Zipf-Mandelbrot models adjusted for the plant communities of areas A and B, respectively, indicate that such areas indicate good ecological conditions for the establishment of late colonizing species. Thus, it can be inferred that water deficiency in the soil did not significantly affect the conservation of the forest under study.
Keywords: Diversity, Richness, Rainfall exclusion
2-EVALUATION OF THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF Dalbergia nigra (Vell.) Allemão ex Benth BY ANALYSIS OF DIVERSITY AND GENETIC STRUCTURE
Adelson Lemes da Silva Júnior, Rafael Lara Rezende Cabral, Lara Sartori, Lucimara Cruz de Souza, Fábio Demolinari de Miranda, Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira, Sarah Ola Moreira, Tiago de Oliveira Godinho
The evaluation of diversity and genetic structure allows us to verify with precision the effect of evolutionary and anthropic processes on species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the divergence and the genetic structure of two natural populations of Dalbergia nigra, using molecular markers Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR). Leaf samples were collected from two populations, located in the National Forest of Pacotuba and the Private Natural Heritage Reserve of Cafundó. Eight ISSR primers were used, which resulted in 97 bands, with 68.04% of polymorphism. Based on the joint data, the values of 0.33 for the Nei index (H*) and 0.50 for the Shannon index (I*) indicated moderate to high genetic diversity, being influenced by the presence of genetically dissimilar individuals in the National Forest of Pacotuba. Most of the genetic divergence was intrapopulational (85.96%), with moderate differentiation between populations (ΦST = 0.1404). The estimated historical gene flow between the fragments was low (Nm = 3.21) when compared with results from other tree species, and the genetic structuring analysis separated the populations into two groups, corresponding to the two populations evaluated. The results indicate a small genetic share among populations, however, populations are becoming structured. The satisfactory levels of genetic diversity benefit the use of the trees as matrixes for programs of restoration and recovery of degraded areas, connectivity of landscapes, and sustainable use of forest resources.
Keywords: Brazilian rosewood, Forest conservation, ISSR, Molecular marke
3- THE USE OF GENETIC DISTANCE AND GROUPING METHODS TO PREDICT Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL GENITORS FOR HYBRIDIZATION
Mateus Chagas Andrade, Aline Cristina Miranda Fernandes, Leandro de Siqueira, Evandro Vagner Tambarussi
The objective of this study was to use quantitative traits to estimate the genetic distance among E. pellita provenances and progenies, to inform possible hybridization strategies in a species improvement program. A provenance and progeny test with 118 progenies from seven provenances was evaluated. The following quantitative traits were measured at seven years of age: diameter at breast height (DBH); height; and individual volume. The data were submitted to REML/BLUP analysis to obtain the predicted genetic value (BLUP). From this, the Mahalanobis (D²) genetic distance was estimated for provenances and progenies, which were then grouped by Tocher’s method, the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA), and principal component analysis (PCA). In total, 29 divergent groups were obtained among progenies based on Tocher’s method, which showed greater reliability according to the cophenetic correlation coefficient than UPGMA. The opposite was found between provenances, where the results for UPGMA demonstrated greater clustering relia-bility. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), the M. Ray and Tully provenances were the most similar, while Connl. A and Orchard were the most divergent. Height was the most important trait in estimating genetic distance. The results obtained offer important insights for breeding programs; with this information, crosses can be designed between contrasting individuals among and within provenances to obtain E. pellita hybrids, validating the possible heterotic groups identified through the genetic distance and grouping methods.
Keywords: Multivariate analysis, Forest improvement, Heterotic groups, Hybrids
4- CLIMATE ZONING FOR THE CULTIVATION OF AFRICAN MAHOGANY SPECIES IN BRAZIL
Rodrigo de Sousa Oliveira, Túllio Morais Franca
African mahogany is the common name given to different species of the genus Khaya. They are tree species native to the African continent, which have a wood quality that allows their noble use in making fine furniture, and in the civil and naval industries. Currently, African mahogany cultivation has received notoriety in Brazil and given its climatic conditions. The country has great potential for planting these species. The purpose of this work was to identify climatic aptitude zones for African mahogany in Brazil. Based on the Kppen classification and in the means of relative air temperature and annual rainfall, a base map interpolation was performed to select regions suitable and restricted to planting and adequate growth of African mahogany species. In general, the regions that presented temperatures between 22 °C and 30 °C were considered of high fitness, while temperature values below 14 °C restricts plantations growth. Regarding to precipitation, areas considered to be of high aptitude have between 700 to 3,000 mm.year-1, extreme values may indicate regions of low suitability and restricted to the cultivation of African mahogany. From the climatic characteristics, it was determined that about 60% of the Brazilian area was of high fitness, between 16% and 32% of medium fitness, and less than 20% as low fitness. The Northeastern semi-arid region proved to be restricted to the cultivation of these species due to the low annual rainfall and a few places in the South region was also restricted due to low temperatures and risks of frost.
Keywords: Climatic aptitude, Khaya, Rainfall, Temperature
5-CHARACTERIZATION OF INJURY CAUSED BY Coptotermes testaceus IN Tectona grandis PLANTATIONS IN BRAZIL
Jerffersoney Garcia Costa, Isabel Carolina de Lima Santos, Otávio Peres Filho, Ronald Zanetti, Alexandre dos Santos
Coptotermes testaceus (Linnaeus, 1758) is the most important species of heartwood termite of adult trees in forests planted in Brazil. This study aimed to characterize the injuries promoted by the heartwood termite C. testaceus in Tectona grandis commercial stands. Tree bark with extend carton material on the outside, forming external galleries and internal stem with a high termite infestation, was found in August 2018, in clonal plantations of T. grandis of 4.2 and 7.2-year of age. Internal injuries were characterized by galleries inside stem length with the presence of some soil, carton material, and termites inside the galleries. The damage by C. testaceus may not show external signs, and the injury was only detected during the harvesting process.
Keywords: Forest entomology, Heartwood térmites, Rhinotermitidae, Teak, Termite
6-MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD/POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITE REINFORCED WITH TIO2 NANOPARTICLES
Mohammad Dahmardeh Ghalehno, Behzad Kord, Babak Nosrati Sheshkal
Wood plastic composite was fabricated using high density polyethylene and pine wood fiber. The effect of addition of TiO2 nanoparticles at different weight fractions (0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) on some properties of the composite was examined. The experimental composites were tested for bending strength, tensile strength, Izod impact strength, thickness swelling, and contact angle. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was also investigated to study the distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles in the composites. The results showed that using TiO2 nanoparticles as a reinforcing agent in wood plastic composites resulted in an increase in the tensile and bending strengths and a decrease the thickness swelling of the composites. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on the Izod impact strength of composites was not significant. The results also showed that the contact angle of wood plastic composites was improved by using TiO2 nanoparticles.
Keywords: Wood/polyethylene composite, TiO2, Nanoparticles, Mechanical strengths, Thickness swelling,Contact angle
7- ACCURACY OF GENETIC PARAMETERS ESTIMATION AND PREDICTION OF GENOTYPIC VALUES IN EUCALYPTUS USING DIFFERENT PLOT TYPES
Marcos Rafael Amâncio, Mateus Chagas Andrade, João Gabriel Zanon Paludeto, Matheus Perek, Odair Bison, Amanda Roberta Vergani, Andrea Nogueira Dias, Evandro Vagner Tambarussi
A suitable experimental design should control the environmental effect and be capable of discriminating genotypes. Two clonal tests of Eucalyptus were planted side by side in a randomized block design with the same 32 treatments under two different plot designs. The first trial was designed with five plants per plot (linear plot, LP) and six block replicates at a spacing of 3 x 2 m. The second trial was designed with one plant per plot (single-tree plot, STP) and 30 block replicates also at a spacing of 3 x 2 m. Diameter at breast height (dbh), height (h), and individual volume (vol) were measured at five years of age. The STP design presented broad-sense heritabilities values of 0.23 for h and 0.41 for vol, which were higher than those found for the LP design (0.12 for h and 0.22 for vol). The ratio between the standard error and the estimated genotypic variance (gS) was lower for the three evaluated traits in the STP trial. The correlations between the genetic values were positive and of high magnitude, ranging from 0.87 (h) to 0.91 (vol), but there were many differences between the two designs with regard to the ranking of clones. The STP presented better discriminant power according to the biplot analysis, as well as more accurate and reliable estimates.
Keywords: Single tree plot, Linear plot, Clonal test, Standard error, BLUP
8- ALTERNATIVES TO ESTIMATE THE VOLUME OF INDIVIDUAL TREES IN FOREST FORMATIONS IN THE STATE OF MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL
Jadson Coelho de Abreu, Carlos Pedro Boechat Soares , Helio Garcia Leite, Daniel Henrique Breda Binoti, Gilson Fernandes da Silva
The objective of this study was to compare different alternatives to estimate the stem volume of individual trees in four different forest formations in the Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The data were obtained in a forest inventory procedure performed by the Minas Gerais Technological Center Foundation. The stem volumes were computed by the Smalian expression up to the outside bark diameter equal to 4 cm. The volume data of outside bark, diameters (DBH) and total heights were used to fit a Schumacher and Hall equation for each forest formation, considering the structures of the linear fixed and mixed models. Next, 100 Multilayer Perceptron artificial neural networks (ANN) were trained in a supervised manner. In addition, we evaluated eight support-vector machine regression (SVMR). The criteria to evaluate the performance of all the alternatives studied were: the correlation between the observed and estimated volumes, the square root of the mean square error and the frequency distribution by percentage relative error class. After the analyzes, all the alternatives were verified to estimate the volume of the individual trees in the different forest formations. Although the alternatives presented close statistics in the validation process, the graphical analysis of the error distribution showed greater precision of the estimates of the mixed linear models for the four formations. Given the results, it is concluded that there is no absolute superiority of one alternative over the others, and that all of them should be evaluated to find the one which best describes or explains the dataset.
Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Mixed linear model, Regression, Support-vector machine
9- MINI-CUTTINGS TECHNIQUE FOR VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF Dalbergia nigra
Aline Ramalho dos Santos, Elzimar de Oliveira Gonçalves, Elbya Leão Gibson, Emanuel França Araújo, Ivar Wendling, Lara Arêas Tertuliano, Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira
The usual propagation method for Dalbergia nigra is via seedings; however, the seasonal supply has a variable quantity of seeds which limits the continuous production of seedlings. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish a vegetative propagation protocol via mini-cuttings technique for D. nigra from juvenile shoots obtained from seedlings. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 x 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with two geographical origins: two controlled release fertilizer doses (4.0 and 8.0 g.dm-³) and four indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) concentrations (0; 2,000; 4,000; and 6,000 mg.Kg-1), with four replications. The mini-cuttings were removed from the tubes after 60 days of propagation in the greenhouse, and the substrate was completely removed by washing in running water to observe the roots. The survival percentage, rooting, rooting speed and variables related to mini-cuttings vigor (largest root length (RL, cm.plant-1), number of roots (NR), surface area (SA, mm2), root volume (RV, mm³) and root dry mass (RDM, g.plant-1) were measured. The results indicated that D. nigra has an aptitude for vegetative propagation by mini-cuttings with survival values and rooting greater than 70%. Geographical origins present a different set of responses for survival, rooting and vigor of mini-cuttings. Stock plant nutrition influences mini-cuttings root growth. IBA concentrations did not promote an effect on the mini-cuttings rooting percentage; however, exogenous auxin at the dose of 6,000 mg.Kg-1 provided mini-cuttings with greater vigor in their radical system. Nonetheless, further research is suggested to define the feasibility of using this regulator in the vegetative propagation of this species.
Keywords: Conservation, Clonal forestry, Adventitious rooting, Forest nutrition, Geographical origin
10- THE EFFECT OF ALTITUDE ON THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TROJAN FIR (Abies nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani [Asch. & Sint. ex Boiss] Coode & Cullen) SAPLINGS
Seray Özden Keleş
The altitude is an important factor to affect the growth and development of saplings of the tree. However, the effect of altitude on the growth and properties of wood during their young stage it has been little studied. This study, therefore, aimed to evaluate the influence of two different altitude steps: 795 m (a.s.l. low-altitude) and 1350 m (a.s.l. high altitude) on the morphological, anatomical and wood density properties of saplings of Abies nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani [Asch. & Sint. ex Boiss] Coode & Cullen (Trojan fir). Trojan fir is an endemic species in Turkey and its morphology and anatomy have less studied in the literature. The functional traits and wood density properties differed significantly between the two altitudes. The saplings grown at low-altitude showed greater taper degree, pith radius, pith proportion, and bark proportion than high-altitude. However, stem height, stem diameter, node number, and xylem proportion were found to be higher in saplings grown at high-altitude than low-altitude. Wood cell anatomy also varied significantly between two altitudes such that ring width, ray numbers, tracheid length, and tracheid width were higher at low-altitude, whereas ray height, ray width, tracheid lumen width, and tracheid wall thickness were greater at high-altitude. This study, therefore, suggested that the growth and development of fir saplings were better when they were grown at high-altitude than low-altitude.
Keywords: Altitude, Sapling, Trojan fir, Stem Morphology