1-SUCCESSIONAL STAGES OF SANTA CATARINA ATLANTIC SUBTROPICAL EVERGREEN RAINFOREST: A NEW CLASSIFICATION PROPOSAL

Fábio Fiamoncini Pastório, André Luís de Gasper, Alexander Christian Vibrans

Abstract

In Santa Catarina State, forest classification in successional stages is supported by the National Council of the Environment (CONAMA) Resolution. However, this classification presents several inconsistencies. This study aimed to evaluate the classification accuracy of three classifications schemes of successional stages proposed for the Subtropical Atlantic Evergreen Rainforest of the Santa Catarina State. All schemes are based on threshold values of mean height, mean diameter at breast height, and basal area to distinguish between stages. We used structural and diversity data from 207 sample plots within the Santa Catarina’s State Subtropical Rainforest region to classify the respective stands according to the schemes. The classification accuracy of each scheme was evaluated through the application of linear discriminant analysis (LDA). We constructed a predictive equation using the results of the LDA, from the scheme that presented highest classification accuracy. The current classification (CONAMA Resolution) showed an average of 81.87% of classification accuracy, while Scenario A presented 83.73% and Scenario B 78.67%. From Scenario A, we created a predictive equation based on structural and diversity variables. This equation may be used to classify other forest sites, constituting a new proposal for the secondary vegetation classification in Santa Catarina’s State Subtropical Rainforest.

Keywords: Forest succession, Secondary forests, Structural variables, Linear discriminant analysis

 

2-DISINFECTION PROTOCOL AND  in  vitro  GERMINATION  OF  SEEDS  OF  Dalbergia nigra

Maricélia Moreira dos Santos, Luis Filipe Cabral Cezario, Ingridh Medeiros Simões, Julcinara Oliveira Baptista, Caroline Palacio de Araujo, Tamyris de Mello, Hernesise Mayard,  Elzimar  de  Oliveira  Gonçalves,  Milene  Miranda  Praça  Fontes,  Edilson  Romais  Schmildt,  José  Carlos  Lopes,  Marcos  Vinicius  Winckler  Caldeira,  Rodrigo  Sobreira Alexandre

Abstract

The  Atlantic  Forest  is  a  biome  that  has  suffered  anthropic  actions,  such  as  the  extraction  of hardwood, which can lead to the extinction of endemic species of great economic and ecological value, such as Dalbergia nigra. In this perspective, large-scale multiplication studies are necessary to contribute to the conservation of this species. The objective of this work was to establish a protocol for the in vitro production of axenic seedlings of D. nigra. Four experiments were performed: I. Immersion times in NaOCl. II. Disinfecting agents in seed germination  of  D.  nigra.  III.  NaOCl  toxicity  in  seeds  of  the  model  species  Lactuca  sativaL.  IV.  Culture  media  and  glutamine  in  the  germination  and  initial  growth  of  D.  nigra.  All  experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design. For a better disinfestation and less harmful effects to the seedlings, it is recommended that the seeds be treated with 70%  alcohol  (1  min)  and  NaOCl  (14  min).  NaOCl  has  a  high  phytotoxic,  cytotoxic,  and  genotoxic  effect,  and  its  mechanism  of  action  in  the  L.  sativa  cell  cycle  is  clastogenic  and  aneugenic, suggesting the formation of abnormal seedlings in D. nigra. The WPM medium and its supplementation with glutamine (0.75 mg.L-1) are recommended.

Keywords: Bahia rosewood, In vitro cultivation, Disinfecting agentes, Sodium hypochlorite toxicity, Culture media, Glutamine

  

3- HEIGHT-DIAMETER  RELATIONSHIPS  FOR  Eucalyptus  grandis  HILL  EX.  MAIDEN  IN MOZAMBIQUE: USING MIXED-EFFECTS MODELING APPROACH

Noé dos Santos Ananias Hofiço, Emanuel Arnoni Costa, Frederico Dimas Fleig, Cesar Augusto Guimarães Finger, André Felipe Hess

Abstract

Equations express that height-diameter relationships are used to estimate tree heights that were not measured in the plots, as well as to calculate their volumes. In this study, we modelled height for Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden stands using nonlinear mixed effect models in Mocuba District, Central Mozambique. Models were tested from 1414 trees measured, in 40 plots with dimensions of 20 x 20 m. Model one (M1) was the best in relation to the others according to the evaluated criteria (R2 = 0.9183; RMSE = 0.558; AIC = -1234.8; BIC = -1224.9). The inclusion of the variables dominant height (h100, m), basal area (G, m2.ha-1) and mean basal area diameter (dg, m) in model 1 (M1) within the scope of mixed effect model structures that involved both fixed and random effect parameters (Model 7) provides better fitting and more precise predictions. For calibration of random effects according to plot, height measurement of at least five trees is required (four dominant trees + one tree randomly selected in plot). Our model is site-specific and its application should therefore be limited to the stands with characteristics that were the basis of this study. Further works on recalibration, validation, and verification of our model using a larger dataset collected from a wider range of species distribution will be more interesting.

Keywords: h/d relationship, Prediction, Calibration

  

4-COMPARISON OF PREDICTOR SELECTION PROCEDURES  IN  SPECIES DISTRIBUTION MODELING: A CASE STUDY OF Fagus hayatae

Cheng-Tao Lin, Ching-An Chiu

Abstract

Selecting  predictors  for  species  distribution  models  (SDMs)  is  a  major  challenge.  In  this  study, we evaluated a comprehensive set of 62 environmental predictors that may be related to  the  occurrence  of  Fagus  hayatae.  We  modeled  F.  hayatae  as  a  case  study  to  compare  model performance through different environmental predictor subsets according to three selection procedures, namely correlation coefficients between predictors, contribution level  of  predictors,  and  expert  choice  of  biologically  relevant  predictors.  The three  selection procedures provided satisfactory results with high performance using about 6-10 valid predictors but had their respective limitations. Consequently, we suggest a synthetic strtegy of predictor selection. Accordingly, the first step was identifying and eliminating ineffective variables with nonidentifiability by using bivariate scatterplots. Next, calculate the correlation coefficients between other candidate predictors. Finally, comprehensively select the applicable environmental predictors with lower correlation coefficient on the basis of highly contribution level and expert knowledge for SDM of target species.

Keywords: Synthetic strtegy, Effective warmth index, Expert knowledge, Environmental variable, Taiwan

 

5- NEGATIVE EFFECTS ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS   AND   CHLOROPLAST   PIGMENTS EXPOSED TO LEAD AND ALUMINUM: A META-ANALYSIS

Antonio  Rodrigues  da  Cunha  Neto,  Alexandra  dos  Santos  Ambrósio,  Marina  Wolowski,  Tainara  Bettiol  Westin,  Kamilla  Pacheco  Govêa,  Marilia  Carvalho, Sandro Barbosa

Abstract

Toxic  metals  have  become  some  of  the  main  abiotic  agents  that  influence  the  stress of  organisms  due  to  their  numerous  agricultural  and  industrial  uses  that  result  in  bioaccumulation  and  toxicity  at  different  levels,  depending  on  the  type  and  concentration  in the environment. Aluminum and lead are present as a result of anthropogenic activities and  cause  soil  contamination  and,  consequently,  pollution  effects  on  producers  such  as  plants.  In  this  review,  we  used  meta-analysis  techniques  to  assess  the  effect  of  aluminum  and lead on plant physiology. We calculated the overall effect size for the response variables photosynthesis,  maximum  quantum  efficiency  of  photosystem  II  and  plastid  pigments (chlorophyll  a,  chlorophyll  b  and  carotenoids).  Moreover,  it  was  possible  to  test  the  the  effect of each metal and the phylogenetic relationship for the probability of Fabaceae species to  respond  to  the  pollution  caused  by  these  heavy  metals,  due  to  the  number  of  studies  found  using  this  family.  Overall,  exposure  to  the  toxic  metals  at  high  magnitudes  affects  photosynthesis and chlorophyll b (by reducing its amount). When considering the effect of each metal separately, aluminum reduced the content of the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. However, lead reduced photosynthesis, maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II and chlorophyll b. When considering the Fabaceae species, there was no reduction of the parameters analyzed under stress by toxic metals. Therefore, our results confirm that these toxic metals (aluminum and lead) are toxic to plant physiology, mainly affecting the efficiency of the photosynthetic system and the plastid content.

  

Keywords: Carotenoids, Effect size, Fluorescence, Physiology, Pollution

 

 

6-LIPID, PROTEIN AND CARBOHYDRATE DURING  SEED  DEVELOPMENT  IN Araucaria angustifolia

Marília Shibata, Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho, Neusa Steiner, Jane Mara Block, Marcelo Maraschin

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate changes in germination and in the amount of carbohydrates, starch,  proteins,  and  lipids  of  A.  angustifolia  seeds  at  different  stages  of  development.  Seeds  were  collected  in  the  Cotyledonary  Stage  and  Stages  I,  II,  III  and  IV.  Germination,  moisture content, dry matter amount, and levels of carbohydrates, starch, proteins, lipids and  fatty  acids  were  determined.  Both  embryo  and  megagametophyte  contained  the  starch  as  the  large  reserve  content,  while  proteins  and  mainly  lipids  represented  only  a  small proportion. During seed development, the highest values for germination, starch and soluble carbohydrate content were observed at stage IV. Although, soluble protein content had decreased from Cotyledonary Stage to Stage III, an increase at Stage IV was observed in the embryo. No difference was observed in lipid content. Linoleic acid was more abundant in fatty acids. Thus, A. angustifolia embryo showed an increase soluble protein content, an accumulation of dry matter and soluble carbohydrate content at Stage IV. It seems that these compounds collaborate to faster and higher germination.

Keywords: Maturation, Recalcitrant seeds, Germination, Fatty acids

 

7- CONTROLLED  RELEASE  FERTILIZER   IN  THE ROOTING AND PERFORMANCE OF CLONES OF Paratecoma peroba

Emanuel França Araújo, Elzimar de Oliveira Gonçalves, Aline Ramalho dos Santos, Elbya Leão Gibson, Marcos  Vinicius  Winckler  Caldeira, José  Eduardo  Macedo Pezzopane

Abstract

Paratecoma  peroba  is  a  native  forest  species  of  great  economic  and  ecological  interest,  currently at risk of extinction. In addition to the difficulty of finding adult individuals of this species,  plant  production  is  limited,  so  the  use  of  mini-cuttings  can  facilitate  the  spread  of P.  peroba.  Thus,  the  objective  of  this  study  was  to  analyse  the  effect  of  different  doses  of  controlled  release  fertilizer  (CRF)  on  rooting,  growth,  photosynthetic  metabolism  and  nutritional balance of  P. peroba clones propagated by mini-cuttings. Five doses of CRF (0, 2,  4,  6  and  8  kg.m-3)  were  tested,  arranged  in  a  completely  randomized  design  with  12  repetitions  and  each  repetition  consisted  of  eight  clones.  Evaluations  were  carried  out  in  the three stages of clones production: 1) Survival at 60 days in a greenhouse, 2) Rooting at 105  days  in  a  shade  house;  and  3)  Evaluation  Productivity  index,  morphological  variables,  physiological  metabolism,  and  nutritional  through  macronutrient  contents,  diagnosis  and  recommendation integrated system (DRIS) indices and the average nutritional balance index of clones at 120 days in the area of hardening. There was no influence of CRF on survival and  rooting  of  mini-cuttings.  The  CRF  favoured  a  higher  productivity  index,  vegetative  growth and physiological activity of the clones. The 6 kg.m-3 dose was sufficient to obtain nutritionally balanced clones.

Keywords: Adventitious rooting, Mini-cutting, Gaseous exchanges, Fertilization, DRIS

 

 

8- INFLUENCE OF SOIL TEXTURE,  CLIMATE  AND  VEGETATION  COVER ON SECONDARY SOIL SALINIZATION IN PAMPAS  PLAINS,  SOUTH AMERICA

Germán Marcelo  Milione, Claudio  Ramón  Mujica, Diego  Dominguez  Daguer,  Sergio Andrés Bea, María Elena Fernández, Javier Enrique Gyenge

Abstract

Land-use change from herbaceous to woody cover -or vice versa- largely affects water fluxes, which in turn can mobilize existing salts dissolved in the soil, and thereby negatively affect soil and/or water quality and site productivity. Secondary salinization was observed after afforestation at the Northern and Eastern subregions of the Río de la Plata Grassland. Based on this, our objective was to determine the degree of association between the climatic (e.g. water balance), edaphic (e.g. texture, presence of petrocalcic horizons) and biological factors (age of plantation, stand density and stand basal area) with the secondary salinization processes under the particular environmental conditions of the Austral Pampas. The lowest electrical conductivity (EC, μS.cm-1) values were found in sites with sandy-textured soils and negative water balance, regardless of tree canopy cover. When EC differences did occur between land uses of the same site (50% of the sites), in most cases – but not in all of them – the highest EC was measured under tree cover. When salinization was significant, no pattern was observed in the salt distribution along the soil profile. An increase of EC was associated with the oldest-unmanaged plantations, with mean age of 40 years, a period much longer than the productive rotation recommended. Under similar edaphic conditions where salinization was observed (i.e. clayed soils, with naturally high salt level), salinization was not significant in relatively young plantations (<rotation period), demonstrating the key role of forest management to decrease its negative impacts on soils.

Keywords: Salt accumulation, Eucalyptus plantations, Afforestation impacts, Land use change, Water balance

 

9- HOW COMPETITION INDICES BEHAVE AT DIFFERENT NEIGHBORHOOD COVERAGES  AND   MODIFICATIONS   IN   A   NATURAL   ARAUCARIA  FOREST IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL 

Gabriel Agostini  Orso,  Adriane  Avelhaneda  Mallmann,  Allan  Libanio  Pelissari, Alexandre Behling, Afonso Figueiredo Filho, Sebastião do Amaral Machado

Abstract

Tree-level growth models are being more used in heterogeneous forests, for they can take underlying  processes,  such  as  competition,  into  account.  Although  it  is  common  in  the  forest literature to test several indices in order to define the most suitable for each study, the evaluation of plot sizes or competition radii is poorly addressed in competition studies. The objective of this work was to assess the effect of different plot sizes and competitor selection radii on distance-independent and distance-dependent competition indices, as well as test several modifications in previously created indices. We used data of diameter, canopy stratum and crown quality from two stem mapped measurements carried out in a six-year period.  Both  distance-dependent  and  independent  indices  were  calculated  for  different  plot sizes and competitor selection radii. The performance of plot sizes and neighborhood radii  was  evaluated  via  Spearman’s  rank  correlation  with  the  annual  growth  in  diameter,  and those with the largest correlation coefficient were included in a stepwise regression to estimate diameter growth. For almost all the indices the correlation increased as the plot size or radius increased. A 50 m x 50 m square plot generated the strongest correlation for distance-independent indices. A 20 m radius resulted the largest correlation for the distance-dependent indices. Modifications in some of the indices also improved their performance. The stepwise regression selected BAL and Hegyi indices to describe the diameter growth, which means that using only one competition index might not be enough to fully explain the overall competition.

Keywords: Annual diameter growth, Distance-dependent tree growth model, Hegyi, Spearman’s rank correlation coeficiente

 

 

 

10- SIMULATING THE EFFECT OF PERMANENT PRESERVATION AREAS ON SOIL EROSION RATES

Guilherme  Henrique  Expedito  Lense,  Rodrigo  Santos  Moreira,  Taya  Cristo  Parreiras, Luis Felipe Pigatto Miranda Silva, Alexandre Elias de Miranda Teodoro, Ronaldo Luiz Mincato

Abstract

Water erosion is one of the main problems faced by the Furnas Lake Surrounding Watershed, located in southeast Brazil. The erosive process is intensified by inadequate land occupation of  the  lake  margins  where  should  be  riparian  forests,  or  permanent  preservation  areas  (APP),  in  order  to  protect  water  resources.  In  this  context,  our  work  aimed  to  estimate  the soil losses of this watershed using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in two different scenarios: I - considering the actual occupation of the area, and II - building an alternative scenario where permanent preservation areas were present. Therefore, we considered  physical,  edaphoclimatic,  and  land  use  and  management  factors.  To  simulate  the  presence of preservation areas, we based it on the Brazilian Forest Code (Bill no. 12.651/2012). In the real scenario (I), the total soil loss estimated was 31,580,907.47 Mg.year-1 (32% over the Soil Loss Tolerance) with an average loss of 19.00 Mg.ha-1.year-1, while in the conservationist scenario (II), there was 10% decrease, which means the mitigation of the erosion process as well as of the negative environmental impacts that can be generated by soil degradation.

Keywords: RUSLE, Soil conservation, Water erosion, Riparian forest