1-Investigation and evaluation of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) potential distribution under climate change in Turkey

Ayhan Akyol, Ömer Kamil Örücü

Abstract

Climate change has negative effects on especially plant species that have a limited habitat. In this context, the stone pine (Pinus pinea L.), which has a limited distribution, is prominent with its economic, ecological and aesthetical characteristics, and it is frequently preferred in afforestation. In this study, the habitats in Turkey that are suitable for P. pinea L. were modelled by using Maxent based on high-resolution environmental data. In total, 13 field-based occurrence points and 19 bioclimatic variables were used to model the potential distribution area under current and two future representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for the years 2050 and 2070. According to the results, the most important bioclimatic variables effective on the potential distribution of P. pinea L. were found as the minimum temperature of coldest month (Bio6), annual precipitation (Bio12) and precipitation of coldest quarter (Bio19). Prediction models under two future climate change scenarios displayed that P. pinea L. will lose habitat and it will shift geographical distribution towards north and higher elevation sites. Considering especially the economic contributions provided by P. pinea L., these results necessitate consideration of the areas where the rate of potential distribution of the species is the highest in afforestation work aiming rural development. However, in addition to habitat losses, climate change affects many variables of the ecosystem. For this reason, more comprehensive studies on climate change and species interactions should be carried out, and these interactions should also be assessed from social and economic perspectives.

Keywords: Afforestation; Climate change; Geographical distribution; Bioclimatic variables; Habitat suitability; Maxent; Species distribution models

 

2-Influence of soil fertility on the ability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) to adapt to technogenic pollution

Konstantin Zavyalov, Natalya Ivanova, Anton Potapenko, Sezgin Ayan

Abstract

The purpose of the research is to identify the effect of soil factor on the ability of Scots pine to adapt to technogenic pollution on the basis of comparative analysis of radial increment of the species which grows on soils of different fertility. It was tested the null hypothesis that soil fertility is a significant factor for adaptation. The research area, the plantation created in 1983 and exposed to pollution of aero-technogenic emissions of magnesium production Satka/Chelyabinsk Region/Russia, is located within the central part of the subzone of coniferous-broad-leaved and South-taiga coniferous forests of the Southern Urals. The analysis of annual growth rings(AGR) of Scots pine growing on soils of different fertility allowed us to estimate the effect of soil factor on the ability of Scots pine to adapt to magnesite pollution. As results; it was found that the differences in the AGR of Scots pine growing on soils of different fertility was statistically significant under the same level of technogenic pollution. During the investigation period (1994-2010), the AGR of Scots pine on fertile soils were significantly higher than those of on poor soils for 7 years. It was revealed that the positive effect of soil fertility on the Scots pine growth is leveled at the level of pollution exceeding 6-10 thousand tons per year of gaseous emissions and 25-30 thousand tons per year of total emissions. It was also found that soil fertility allows better adaptation of Scots pine to low temperatures, and more actively grow with increasing precipitation.

Keywords: Scots pine, Forest planting, Dendrochronological analysis, Forest ecosystem, Aero-technogenic

  

3- Influence of fertilization on growth of young chestnut trees (Castanea sativa Mill.) managed for wood production

Stéphanie Lopes Ribeiro, Teresa Fidalgo Fonseca,Ana Luísa Pires

Abstract

The study aims to evaluate the effects of fertilization on growth of chestnut tree (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivated for wood purposes. An experimental essay was established in a 3-year old chestnut tree stand with a planting spacing of 3.5 × 3.0 m. Four treatments were applied to randomized blocks with three repetitions: control (C), addition of phosphorus (P), addition of phosphorus and potassium (PK) and addition of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK). The chemical properties of the soil and the concentration of nutrients in the leaves were evaluated after the treatment, and measurements of tree diameter and stem height were made for a monitoring period of 4 years. Treatments did not affect soil properties or leaf nutrient concentrations. On the counterpart, the effect of the fertilizers was noticed for tree dimensions and growth. Gains of NPK in relation to the control were observed for the height variable, over the years. Seven years after application of the treatments, differences were also noticed for the diameter and the volume index variables. The NPK treatment has presented a significant effect on tree growth compared to the control, with noticeable gains in the stem height.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium fertilizers, Tree growth

  

4- In  vitro  germination  of  Melanoxylon  brauna  schott.  and  evaluation  of  the toxicity of disinfecting agents in the Lactuca sativa L. model plant

Elisa Regina da Silva,  Ingridh Medeiros Simões, Julcinara Oliveira Baptista, Kelly Nery Bighi,  Milene  Miranda  Praça  Fontes,  Edilson  Romais  Schmildt,  José  Carlos  Lopes, Marcos Vinícius Winckler Caldeira, Rodrigo Sobreira Alexandre

Abstract

The development of tissue cultured-based protocols applied to braúna, an endangeres species, would be though highly desirable. However, contamination-free explants are determinant for the success of this technique, which might be vulnerable to the toxicity of disinfectants. Here, we aimed at establishing an efficient protocol for in vitro production of axenic seedlings of braúna and to evaluate the toxicity of disinfectant agents in the Lactuca sativa model species. Experiments I and II: Seeds were treated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and fungicide captan, with and without residue, by different immersion times, respectively. The following were analyzed: contamination; germination and normal and abnormal seedlings. Experiment III: Lettuce seeds placed in Petri dishes were exposed to 2.5 mL captan at 0.5; 1; 2; 4 and 8%; 0.01% glyphosate and distilled water. The germination, length of seedlings, cell cycle, nuclear and chromosomal alterations of the cells of the root meristem were assesed. The isolated use of NaOCl was not efficient in the disinfestation of braúna seeds. However, the immersion of the seeds in captan, for 10 minutes with its residue, led to higher germination and vigor indexes; however, resulted in the formation of abnormal seedlings. This compound exhibited toxicity in the lettuce model seeds because affected the germination and the whole development of the seedlings, showing clastogenic and aneugenic action in the meristematic cell cycle.

Keywords: Abnormal seedlings, Disinfestation Melanoxylon brauna, Plant tissue culture, Seeds

 

5- Mixotrophism  effect  on  in  vitro  elongation  and  adventitious  rooting of Eucalyptus dunnii

Denys Matheus Santana Costa Souza, Sérgio Bruno Fernandes, Maria Lopes Martins Avelar, Samira Rangel do Prado Frade, Letícia Vaz Molinari, Douglas Santos Gonçalves1f, Gilvano Ebling Brondani

Abstract

Carbon  dioxide  is  one  of  the  most  important  greenhouse  gases  responsible  for  global  climate  change.  Terrestrial  ecosystems  are  widely  recognized  as  useful  mechanisms,  as  they  store  large  quantities  of  carbon  in  their  bodies.  In  this  context,  the  present  study  aims  at  analyzing  carbon  stocks  in  forest  (both  productive  and  degraded),  grassland,  and agricultural ecosystems of Kizildag Planning Unit. To this end, forest inventory data, published statistics, and GIS tools were used for modeling carbon densities of these three ecosystems in a spatially explicit manner. Moreover, carbon contents were estimated for different pools including above- and below-ground biomass, litter layer, deadwood, and soil components. Results showed that a total of nearly 3.5 million tons of carbon stored in  the  entire  study  area.  When standardized  to  per  unit  area,  productive  and  degraded  forests stocked the most significant amounts followed by grassland and cropland land use/land cover (LULC) classes. The average density was 120.8 tons ha-1 for productive forests,  while  it  was  32.3  tons  ha-1  for croplands.  The  vast  majority  of  these  amounts  stocked in soil pools for each LULC classes. Therefore, special attention should be paid for  soil  carbon  studies  which  are  very  rare  in  the  region.  Regarding  spatial  distribution,  Kizildag  showed  a  rather  non-homogeneous  pattern  in  terms  of  carbon  densities.  Hotspots  generally  accumulated  in  the  southwestern  parts,  as  well  as  near  the  east  border of the study area. Carbon densities could be as high as 200-245 tons ha-1 in these hotspots. Those areas were dominated by mixed stands of Taurus fir, cedar, and black pine  at  older  ages  and  they  were  designated  primarily  for  protective  functions  in  the  forest management plan. It is concluded that vast degraded forestlands in the region offer great opportunities to forest managers as an effective mechanism in combatting climate change. Therefore, rehabilitation, afforestation, and forest protection activities should be accelerated as possible.

Keywords: Climate change, Carbon storage, Carbon pools, Forest inventory data, Mediterranean region, Antalya, Kony

6-Public support for timber housing production in Brazil

Victor A. De Araujo, Elen A. M. Morales, Juliana Cortez-Barbosa,Maristela Gava, José N. Garcia

Abstract

Using  face-to-face  interviews  and  semi-structured  questionnaires  with  timber  housing  developers, this study assed the perceptions of respective industries about government stimuli  and  public  policies  towards  timber  construction  in  Brazil.  Four  questions  were  developed  under  qualitative  aspects,  which  were  percentually  measured  to  enable  a  response  comparative.  Thereby,  107  of  210  companies  were  evaluated  here.  Under  statistical view, this sampling revealed a margin of error acceptable and next to the ideal condition. Results suggest that current policies have been apparently restrictive. Timber house  producers  still  are  dependant  on  strategies  for  whole  national  segments,  whose  scope does not promote both local cleaner industries and those focused on sustainable solutions such as from this studied sector. Tax cuts and exemptions for greener products could be an efficient alternative to incentive this production sector, and promote these sustainable  timber  houses.  The  creation  of  assertive  public  policies  could  attract  more  investors  and  developers  to  expand  this  industry  and  other  forest-timber  sectors  and,  consequently, contribute to reduce the housing shortage in Brazil.

Keywords: Incentive, Policy, Wooden house, Sectorial survey, Interview, Timber industry

 

 7- Generalized  linear  models  for  tree  survival  in  loblolly  pine plantations

Luan Demarco Fiorentin, Wagner Hugo Bonat, Allan Libanio Pelissari,Sebastião do Amaral Machado, Saulo Jorge Téo, Gabriel Orso

Abstract

To quantify the surviving trees in a forest stand and estimate the probability of an individual tree to survival are a fundamental task in forest management planning. Therefore, the main goal of this paper was to estimate the tree survival probability in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations based on generalized linear models (GLM). The data set was obtained from forest inventories carried out in the Midwest of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The data analysis combined strategies for selecting covariates and different specifications of link functions in a Bernoulli GLM. We performed strategies for covariate selection at plot-level along with the standard stepwise procedure, where we considered the elastic net approach, as well as its special cases the lasso and ridge penalization. Our analyses showed that the stepwise procedure combined with the complementary log-log link function provide the best fit. The variables that most contributed to assess tree survival were basal area, number of individuals, maximum diameter, diameter of the average cross-sectional area and the diameter coefficient of variation per plots. This model presents 81.5% of accuracy given by ROC curve. Finally, we evaluated the fitted model by means of the half-Normal plots and randomized quantile residuals, whose results showed evidence of a suitable fit. We suggest the stepwise procedure for selecting covariates for a tree survival probability model, besides a complementary log-log link function.

Keywords: Elastic net, Link function, Logistic regression, Ridge regression, Stepwise method

 

8- Analyzing carbon stocks in a mediterranean forest  enterprise: a case study from kizildag, Turkey

Musa Dinc, Can Vatandaslar

Abstract

Carbon  dioxide  is  one  of  the  most  important  greenhouse  gases  responsible  for  global  climate  change.  Terrestrial  ecosystems  are  widely  recognized  as  useful  mechanisms,  as  they  store  large  quantities  of  carbon  in  their  bodies.  In  this  context,  the  present  study  aims  at  analyzing  carbon  stocks  in  forest  (both  productive  and  degraded),  grassland,  and agricultural ecosystems of Kizildag Planning Unit. To this end, forest inventory data, published statistics, and GIS tools were used for modeling carbon densities of these three ecosystems in a spatially explicit manner. Moreover, carbon contents were estimated for different pools including above- and below-ground biomass, litter layer, deadwood, and soil components. Results showed that a total of nearly 3.5 million tons of carbon stored in  the  entire  study  area.  When standardized  to  per  unit  area,  productive  and  degraded  forests stocked the most significant amounts followed by grassland and cropland land use/land cover (LULC) classes. The average density was 120.8 tons ha-1 for productive forests,  while  it  was  32.3  tons  ha-1  for croplands.  The  vast  majority  of  these  amounts  stocked in soil pools for each LULC classes. Therefore, special attention should be paid for  soil  carbon  studies  which  are  very  rare  in  the  region.  Regarding  spatial  distribution,  Kizildag  showed  a  rather  non-homogeneous  pattern  in  terms  of  carbon  densities.  Hotspots  generally  accumulated  in  the  southwestern  parts,  as  well  as  near  the  east  border of the study area. Carbon densities could be as high as 200-245 tons ha-1 in these hotspots. Those areas were dominated by mixed stands of Taurus fir, cedar, and black pine  at  older  ages  and  they  were  designated  primarily  for  protective  functions  in  the  forest management plan. It is concluded that vast degraded forestlands in the region offer great opportunities to forest managers as an effective mechanism in combatting climate change. Therefore, rehabilitation, afforestation, and forest protection activities should be accelerated as possible.

Keywords: Climate change, Carbon storage, Carbon pools, Forest inventory data, Mediterranean region, Antalya, Kony

 

   

9- Wood colorimetry for the characterization of amazonian tree species: a subsidy for a more efficient and sustainable use

Wilza Carla Santos e Sousa, Lucas de Jesus Barbosa, Alvaro Augusto Vieira Soares, Selma Lopes Goulart, Thiago de Paula Protásio

Abstract

The wood of different species may present macroscopic similarities, which hinders a reliable differentiation between the specie. This can be a problem, especially in the tropics, given the high species diversity in this region. To overcome this problem of wood identification, colorimetric criteria can be applied, aiming at a better and more objective classification, as opposed to the traditional anatomic criteria. Therefore, the aim of this research was to analyze the variability of the wood color considering the cutting planes (tangential and radial) and to determine its correlation with the wood basic density of ten Amazonian tree species. The following species were studied: Apuleia leiocarpa (amarelão), Hymenolobium modestum (angelim-pedra), Anadenanthera columbrina (angico), Dipteryx odorata (cumaru), Pouteria pachycarpa (goiabão), Mezilaurus itauba (itaubá), Hymenaea courbaril (jatobá), Simarouba amara (marupá), Astronium leicontei (muiracatiara) and, Bowdichia nitida (sucupira). The CIEL*a*b* system was used to determine the colorimetric parameters (L*, a*, b*, C*, and h*), which were obtained through a portable colorimeter. The species were classified in six color specific groups: light yellow, olive brown, yellowish olive, olive light, grayish white and reddish brown. We observed statistical effect of the cut planes only for luminosity, with higher mean for radial face. The correlation analyses between color and basic density showed that the denser woods are darker and have more red pigment (a*). There is negative correlation between luminosity (L*) and wood basic density (-0.78). The colorimetric parameter a* presented positive correlation with the basic density (r = 0.80).

Keywords: Amazon, CIEL*a*b*, System, Wood color, Basic density

  

10- Plant richness and life form diversity along landscape and forest use gradients in northwestern patagonia of argentina

Alejandro Dezzotti, Ariel  Mortoro,  Andrea  Medina,  Renato  Sbrancia,  Hernán  Attis Beltrán

Abstract

The imbalance existing between the demand and degradation of forest resources partially explains the on-going creation of exotic tree plantations. In northwestern Patagonia of Argentina, Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae) afforestation plays a key role in conserving degraded soil, but may also reduce biodiversity. The ecological sustainability of this activity was assessed in Aguas Frías (38°46´ W, 70°54´ S) and Litrán (38°54´ W, 71°01´ S) forest stations, where species richness and life form diversity of plants were compared in fenced and unfenced landscape units. Eleven units were identified, composed of natural herbaceous-shrubby steppes, xerophilous and hygrophilous meadows, and pure and mixed forests of Nothofagus pumilio (Nothofagaceae) and Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae), and P. ponderosa planted forests of dissimilar canopy cover. Xerophilous meadows on rocky outcrops held 1/3 of total richness in an extremely restricted area. Hygrophilous meadows exhibited the largest number of families and native and introduced species, and low life form diversity. Dense pine stands showed low light and water availability in the understory, which correlated with low soil cover, hemicryptophyte frequency, richness and life form diversity. As canopy cover decreased, values for these indicators resembled those of the steppe of reference. Within a plantation, greater compatibility between conservation of diversity and wood production requires maintenance of fencing, reduced tree spacing over long rotations and the development of buffer zones and biological corridors. Although such a project may represent a decline in productivity, it will promote enhanced ecosystem and aesthetic values, increasing the likelihood of further economic support from society.

Keywords: Natural forest, Pinus ponderosa, Planted forest Rocky outcrop, Wetland