1- SEASONAL AIR TEMPERATURES AND LIGHT EFFECTS ON LEAF TRAITS AT MONTANE ATLANTIC FOREST, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL
Nidia Mara Marchiori, Janaína Gomes da Silva, Fernanda Cassemiro dos Santos, Leonardo Moreno Domingues, Helber Custódio de Freitas, Humberto Ribeiro da Rocha, Plínio Barbosa de Camargo, Marcos Pereira Marinho Aidar
Seasonal variation of temperature could place physiological constraints on the distribution and performance of tropical forest plants, associated with light and water availability. A simple way to assess the relationship between temperature and plant physiology is through the characterization of leaf traits. The main aim of this study was to evaluate, through foliar parameters, the responses of plants to inherent seasonality. A 0.09 ha plot was installed near the flux tower and albedo sensors at Montane Ombrophilous Dense Forest (MODF) - Santa Virgínia Nucleus. At the peak of the dry and wet seasons, the electron transport rate (ETR) and photosynthetic pigments were measured. The results indicated that in MODF, cold and light availability are the main factors that could be influencing the physiology of species, demonstrated by high ETR in the wet season (197.4 μmol e-m-2s-1) compared to the dry season (87.4 μmol e-m-2s-1). Photosynthetic pigments varied between seasons, we observed higher chlorophyll b content (p<0.05), and lower content of carotenoids and xanthophylls (p<0.01) and Chl a/b (p<0.01) in the dry season. The low temperatures and irradiance influenced metabolic activity.
Keywords: Albedo, Chlorophyll, Carotenoids, Xantophylls
2- AUTOMATED INDIVIDUAL TREE DETECTION IN AMAZON TROPICAL FOREST FROM AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATAL
Pedro Henrique Karantino Millikan, Carlos Alberto Silva, Luiz Carlos Estraviz Rodriguez, Tupiara Mergen de Oliveira, Mariana Peres de Lima Chaves e Carvalho, Samuel de Pádua Chaves e Carvalho
Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) derived individual tree crown attributes have the potential of progressing ecology and forest dynamics studies and reduce field inventory costs. In this study seven methods for individual tree detection (ITD) were evaluated in a tropical forest under sustainable forest management, situated in the State of Rondônia, Brazil. An automated tree matching procedure was developed in order to minimize the error when matching individual tree count from LiDAR and field data. The ITD results were expressed in recall, precision, and F score, for the purpose of comparing methods. A local maxima-based algorithm showed best performance among the four methods, detecting 48% of trees with 46% of precision. Omission of trees was the leading source of error, caused primarily by overlapped trees in lower vegetation. However, errors of over-segmentation were relevant, caused by large and heterogeneous crowns that were considered as more than one individual. The complexity of tropical forests in the Amazon is certainly a challenge for current tree detection algorithms. We suggested that the future studies should consider testing multi-layer ITD workflows for improving the accuracy of tree detection.
Keywords: Automatic Processes, Brazilian Amazon Forest, Crown Delineation, LiDAR Technology
3- UTILISATION OF THE MINI-CUTTING TECHNIQUE FOR VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF Paratecoma peroba
Emanuel França Araújo, Elbya Leão Gibson, Aline Ramalho dos Santos, Elzimar de Oliveira Gonçalves, Ivar Wendling, Rodrigo Sobreira Alexandre, Lunalda Aparecida Vaz Pola
O Paratecoma peroba é uma espécie florestal nativa de grande interesse econômico e ecológico, atualmente em risco de extinção devido à exploração excessiva da madeira. As taxas de juros são limitadas; Portanto, o uso da técnica de mini-corte poderia facilitar a propagação dessa espécie. O protocolo experimental base para um protocolo de propagação vegetativa para P. peroba utiliza uma técnica de mini-corte. No primeiro experimento, cinco combinações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB; 0, 1, 2, 4 e 8 g L -1 ) e dois tipos de substratos (areia e um substrato comercial à base de Pinus moído)casca, coco em pó e aditivos minerais) foram testados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 × 2 com quatro repetições. No segundo experimento, três tipos de miniestacas (apical de 6 cm e 10 cm e intermediária de 4 cm) e dois tamanhos de área foliar (foram foliares totais e isolados a 50% da área foliar) foram testados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. em fatorial 3 × 2, com quatro repetições. Os Resultados mostraram that P. peroba Poderia Ser propagada vegetativamente usando a Técnica de mini-corte com Até 82,5% de enraizamento. O substrato comercial foi melhor para a produção de miniestacas.As concentrações de IBA inibiram o enraizamento e a mini-cutícula apical de 10 cm foi melhor para a propagação do que os outros tamanhos. A manutenção da área foliar promove maior vigor ao sistema radicular das plantas de P. peroba .
Keywords: Adventitious rooting, Indole-3-butyric acid, Clonal forestry, Mini-cut type, Foliar architecture
4- ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI COMMUNITY IN Eremanthus erythropappus TREE FROM ANTHROPOGENIC AND NATURAL AREAS OF MINAS GERAIS
Patricia Gomes Cardoso, Bárbara Temponi Vilarino Godinho, Ítalo Augusto Férrer Melo Santos, Eliane Aparecida Gomes, Roberta Hilsdorf Piccoli
It is know that many plants live in symbiosis with microorganisms that can be found on their interior, the endophytes. Environment and tissue type are modulating factors of this community, in which most of these microorganisms produce important antimicrobial molecules and they may be powerful biocontrol agents in agriculture. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the community of endophytic fungi from Eremanthus erythropappus in anthropogenic and natural areas (with human interaction, natural habitat and planned planting) of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, through cultivation-based approach and verify their antimicrobial activity against phytopathogenic fungal and pathogenic bacteria. The endophytic fungi isolated were identified by sequencing of the ITS region and subjected an in vitro antagonism test. The antagonisms that show antibiosis were submitted to tests on split plates to verify the volatile compound production. In the pairing testes, the endophytic fungi of the genera Cryptosporiopsis, Diaporthe, Xylaria, Paraconiothyrium and Camarosporium presented antibiosis against phytopathogenic fungi by releasing compounds in the medium. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of twelve genera fungi in E. erythropappus besides verifying their antagonist capacity, which opens the way for discovery of bioactive substances produced by endophytic fungi that inhibit pathogens.
Keywords: Antifungal activity, Biological control, Candeia, Cryptosporiopsis
5- DEVELOPING NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC MODELS FOR PREDICTING DENSITY OF Eucalyptus WOOD BASED ON INDIRECT MEASUREMENT
Taiana Guimarães Arriel, Fernanda Maria Guedes Ramalho, Rebeca Alves Barreto Lima, Kelly Iapuque Rodrigues de Sousa, Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein, Paulo Fernando Trugilho
Basic density has been considered a wood quality index because it has a relationship with other properties and affects its industrial application. Several studies have shown that near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is able to estimate wood density quickly and reliably. The objective of this study was to develop calibrations for the prediction of basic wood density using the mean values of the trees and spectra measured in wood disks and sawdust as references. The wood basic density of 39 Eucalyptus clones was determined in the laboratory by means of the mean longitudinal positions of 0%, 2%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 75% of the commercial height of the tree by the gravimetric method. NIR spectra were recorded using a spectrometer using optical fiber and integrating sphere directly on the transverse plane of the solid wood in disks collected from diameter et breast height and later in the sawdust. The performance of the NIR based models was evaluated according to the spectral acquisition method and sample preparation. The results showed that the best model for basic density estimation using indirect measurements was developed from the average spectra per clone measured in solid wood disks (R2cv of 0.77 and RMSEcv of 15 kg.m-³).
Keywords: Wood quality, Regression PLS, NIRS, Solid wood, Wood poder
6- RELEVANCE OF STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TO RIO GRANDE BASIN MANAGEMENT
Patrícia Andressa de Ávila, Luiz Otávio Moras Filho, Nathália de Paiva Mendonça, Luís Antônio Coimbra Borges, Lucas Rezende Gomide, Fausto Weimar Acerbi Júnior
This research aims to identify the vulnerabilities of Rio Grande basin in Minas Gerais state as well as to investigate, through technical, legal, social, and governmental aspects, the relevance of SEA as an environmental tool for the conservation and preservation of watersheds. Rio Grande basin evaluation was performed by using this following database: soil classes, land use classification, water quality index, and economic ecological index. It was performed multi-criteria decision analysis based on analytic hierarchy process methodology. 52.5% of the studied area was classified as “good” preservation condition. Alto Grande (GD1), Mortes/Jacaré (GD2) and Furnas (GD3) units did not contain significant percentages of their areas corresponding to the preservation class “very good”. In the studied area, 34.51% was classified as “medium” preservation condition, thus indicating the need for effective measures for the river basin conservation. These findings highlight the potential importance of including the SEA in the decision-making process for plans, policies and programs related to the integrated management of water resources.
Keywords: Conservation, Strategic environmental assessment, Multi-criteria analysis, Management of water resources
7- PLANT RICHNESS AND LIFE FORM DIVERSITY ALONG LANDSCAPE AND FOREST USE GRADIENTS IN NORTHWESTERN PATAGONIA OF ARGENTINA
Alejandro Dezzotti, Ariel Mortoro, Andrea Medina, Renato Sbrancia, Hernán Attis Beltrán
The imbalance existing between the demand and degradation of forest resources partially explains the on-going creation of exotic tree plantations. In northwestern Patagonia of Argentina, Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae) afforestation plays a key role in conserving degraded soil, but may also reduce biodiversity. The ecological sustainability of this activity was assessed in Aguas Frías (38°46´ W, 70°54´ S) and Litrán (38°54´ W, 71°01´ S) forest stations, where species richness and life form diversity of plants were compared in fenced and unfenced landscape units. Eleven units were identified, composed of natural herbaceous-shrubby steppes, xerophilous and hygrophilous meadows, and pure and mixed forests of Nothofagus pumilio (Nothofagaceae) and Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae), and P. ponderosa planted forests of dissimilar canopy cover. Xerophilous meadows on rocky outcrops held 1/3 of total richness in an extremely restricted area. Hygrophilous meadows exhibited the largest number of families and native and introduced species, and low life form diversity. Dense pine stands showed low light and water availability in the understory, which correlated with low soil cover, hemicryptophyte frequency, richness and life form diversity. As canopy cover decreased, values for these indicators resembled those of the steppe of reference. Within a plantation, greater compatibility between conservation of diversity and wood production requires maintenance of fencing, reduced tree spacing over long rotations and the development of buffer zones and biological corridors. Although such a project may represent a decline in productivity, it will promote enhanced ecosystem and aesthetic values, increasing the likelihood of further economic support from society.
Keywords: Natural forest, Pinus ponderosa, Planted forest, Rocky outcrop, Wetland
8- REPETITIVE MOTION AND POSTURAL ANALYSIS OF MACHINE OPERATORS IN MECHANIZED WOOD HARVESTING OPERATIONS
Anderson de Costa Paini, Eduardo da Silva Lopes, Amaury Paulo de Souza, Felipe Martins de Oliveira, Carla Krulikowski Rodrigues
The objective of this study was to evaluate operators’ posture and repetitive motions in the mechanized wood harvesting operations, aiming comfort, safety, and health of forest operators. The study was carried out in the clearcutting of pine stands located in Paraná State, Brazil. Data were obtained in tree cutting operations with feller buncher and wood processing with harvesters, in which three operators in each machine were filmed during their workday. The typical postures were evaluated by Rapid Whole-Body Assessment (REBA) and Rapid Upper-Limb Assessment (RULA) methods, while repetitive motions were evaluated by Latko, Silverstein and Strain Index (SI) methods. The results showed the feller buncher operators remained long period seated in static position, with fists turning outside the neutral line and without pauses for recovery, although REBA and RULA methods had identified low postural risk. In wood processing operation, the spinal column and neck were the most affected body parts, presenting medium postural risk and the need for investigations and quickly changes by REBA and RULA methods, respectively. Besides that, wood harvesting operations with feller buncher and harvester were classified as high repeatability, showing more than 30 thousand repetitive motions in a workday, indicating high risk of Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSIs) and Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in the operators. Therefore, it is concluded the ergonomic measures are necessary to improve operators’ comfort and health..
Keywords: Ergonomics, Forestry, Health, Mechanized harvesting
9-CHANGES IN THE SOIL STRUCTURE AND ORGANIC MATTER DYNAMICS UNDER DIFFERENT PLANT COVERS
Patrícia Andressa de Ávila, Luiz Otávio Moras Filho, Nathália de Paiva Mendonça, Luís Antônio Coimbra Borges, Lucas Rezende Gomide, Fausto Weimar Acerbi Júnior
In this way, this study evaluated physical properties and organic matter dynamics of soil under different plant covers in seven areas consisting of: five areas under ecological restoration (REC1 to REC5), an areas with native vegetation (MATA) and a sugarcane crop area (SC), all located in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, a transition area between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes. Samples were taken at the 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers and were analyzed for soil density (Ds), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), total porosity (PT), weighted mean diameter (DMP), aggregate stability index (IEA), and the particle sizes of organic matter. There were no differences in DMP between the areas, however, sugarcane crop area and areas under ecological restoration (REC 1, 3 and 4) had high values of density and microporosity and low contents of the fractions of organic matter, which can promote a greater restriction to the root development of plants. Among the areas under restoration, REC1 and REC5 presented physical conditions with higher similarity to the native vegetation area. The differences found for the parameters analyzed suggest that soil management and soil structure can influence the behavior of physical properties and organic matter fractions of the soil.
Keywords: Soil physical properties, OM analys, Production system, Ecological restoration
10-NANOPARTICLES-BASED WOOD PRESERVATIVES: THE NEXT GENERATION OF WOOD PROTECTION?
Cilene Cristina Borges, Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli, Thiago Moreira Cruz, Paulo Junio Duarte, Thomaz Antunes Junqueira
Wood is a natural material that presents a great variation of properties. Many treatments have been developed in order to extend the service life of wood products. Nowadays, products with low toxicity and economic viability are a challenge to researchers. Nanotechnology has been indicated as a solution to this issue, since wood preservatives can be utilized in low concentration, promoting satisfactory results in terms of protection with no color changes. The main goal of this review is to present nanotechnology advances on wood protection. Self-cleaning surfaces, scratch and weathering resistance, and biocides properties have been achieved through nanoparticles applications. Studies evaluating the performance of nanoparticles from silver, boron, cupper, zinc, zinc oxide, zinc borate, and titanium dioxide, with or without acrylic emulsion on wood protections have reported promising findings. Tests performed against termites, rot, mold and stain fungi, and UV degradation have demonstrated that some biocides have their properties improved in nanoscale, while others do not present the same biocidal properties. Controlled release and encapsulation technologies are another important matter once it can increase the effectiveness of wood treatments. Nanoparticles risk assessment for human health and the environment are still incipient. Despite of that, nanozinc oxide and nanotitanium dioxide present encouraging potential. Nanozinc oxide has been reported as a promising antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agent, able to control several kinds of cancer cells. On the other hand, nanotitanium dioxide had lower ecotoxicity impacts to the environment than silver. Based on this review, we consider wood treatments based on nanoparticles might play an important role in the next generation of wood protection systems.
Keywords: Wood protection, Treatments, Nanostructures, Nanotechnology, Biocide