1- A GENERALIZED ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS MODEL FOR JUVENILE INDIVIDUALS OF RHODODENDRON ARBOREUM (Sm.) IN NEPAL
Rana Bahadur B.K, Ram P. Sharma, Shes K. Bhandari
Carbon in the juvenile plants contributes significant share to the total carbon stock in forests. A precise estimate of aboveground biomass of the juvenile sages of trees is therefore very important. We developed a generalized allometric biomass model for the prediction of aboveground biomass of the juvenile individuals of Rhododendron arboreum (Sm.). We used biomass and other dendrometric data from 66 destructively sampled juveniles of this species in Gorkha district- a mountainous district in Nepal, for the purpose. Using eight nonlinear functions of different mathematical forms (power, exponential, fractional forms), we evaluated several individual-level characteristics, such as size (diameter, height), crown measures (crown ratio, crown width, crown spread ratio, crown index, crown fullness ratio), height-to-diameter ratio (slenderness coefficient), number of branches and wood density, and stand-level characteristics, such as altitude and slope for their potential contributions to the biomass variations of the juvenile individuals. A simple power function with cross product of the square-diameter and height as a main predictor and crown spread ratio as a covariate predictor showed the best fit to the data (R2adj = 0. 9013); RMSE = 59.349 g) with no substantial trends in the residuals and with fitted curves perfectly covering to the measured biomass data. Our model is site-specific, and its application should therefore be limited to those that formed the basis of this study. Further research on recalibration, validation, and verification of our model, with a larger dataset collected from sites with a wider range of these characteristics, is recommended.
Keywords: Allometric modelling, Community forest, Crown measures, Crown spread ratio, Height-to-diameter ratio
2- Artificial Neural Networks Applied in Forest Biometrics and Modeling: State of the Art (2007 to 2018)
Flávio Chiarello, Maria Teresinha Arns Steiner, Edilson Batista de Oliveira, Júlio Eduardo Arce, Júlio César Ferreira
Artificial Intelligence has been an important support tool in different spheres of activity, enabling the knowledge aggregation, the process optimization and the application of methodologies capable of solving complex real problems. Although focusing on a wide space of successful metrics, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) approach, a technique similar to the central nervous system, has been gaining notoriety and relevance with regard to the classification of standards, intrinsic parameter estimates, remote sense, data mining and other possibilities. This article aims to develop a systematic review, involving some bibliometric aspects, aimed at detecting the application of ANNs in the field of Forest Engineering, particularly in the prognosis of the essential parameters to the forest inventory, analyzing the construction of the scopes, implementation of networks (type – classification), the software used and complementary techniques. From the 1,140 articles collected in three search databases (Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science), 43 articles underwent such analyzes. The results show that the number of works within this scope has been increasing continuously, and 32% of the analyzed articles predict the final total marketable volume; 78% made use of the Multilayer Perceptron Networks (MLP, Multilayer Perceptron) and 63% were from Brazilian researchers.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Systematic Review, Bibliometric Review, Multilayer Perceptron, Forest Engineering Problems
3- STRESS, DISPLACEMENT JOINTS OF GMELINA ARBOREA AND TECTONA GRANDIS WOOD WITH METAL PLATES, SCREWS AND NAILS FOR USE IN TIMBER TRUSS CONNECTIONS
Monzerrath Rivera-Tenorio, Roger Moya
In countries like Costa Rica, there is an interest in developing wooden trusses in a versatile and light way. However, there is a key aspect in the behavior of truss connections in this product. Therefore, the present study determines the structural behavior of the truss connections and the displacement, the resistance, the stiffness values and the failure mode of truss connections made with Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis timber for angles of 0° and 90°; and three types of truss connectors (metal plates, screws and nails), subject to tension and compression loads. The results showed that metal plates show the highest load values with respect to the nails and screws in both species. Likewise, in the design and critical displacement stress, metal plates surpass the nails and screws in both species; and in the two angles. From these stress values, we proposed a model for the prediction of the stiffness for the truss connections of the intermediate angles (30°, 45° and 60°) and the test showed that the prediction was low, the bias was 3%.
Keywords: Wooden structures, Fastener, Stiffness, Tropical wood, Tropical species
4- SEEDLING EMERGENCE AND BIOMETRY OF FRUITS AND SEEDS OF Cariniana pyriformis FOR A REGION IN MAGDALENA MEDIO, COLOMBIA
Andrés Iván Prato Sarmiento, Diego Alejandro Zaraté Caicedo, Jhon Jairo Zuluaga Peláez, Sandra Liliana Castañeda Garzón
Aiming at contributing to the knowledge of the biology and propagation of Cariniana pyriformis Miers, a native species with high timber and ecological attributes, ripe fruits were harvested in the municipality of El Carmen de Chucuri, Magdalena Medio region, Colombia. Initially, 400 seeds and 320 fruits were characterized in their biometry. Then, a homogenous seed sample was immersed for 24 hours in five doses (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg L-1) of gibberellins (GA3) and cultivated in a greenhouse. For this, a completely randomized design was adopted with six repetitions of 25 seeds each. Fruits and seeds showed values, on average ± standard deviation, of 76.1 ± 11 mm and 48.1 ± 8.2 mm in length, and 49.6 ± 5 mm and 7.2 ± 0.7 mm of width, respectively, with 62.3 ± 22.3 g of fresh mass per fruit and 13 ± 3.1 seeds per fruit. One kilogram corresponded on average to 6715 seeds with 11% humidity. In the greenhouse, emergence speed index and emergence percentage of seedlings increased as the GA3 dose increased, allowing a more unimodal distribution of the relative frequency of emergence. There is higher variation in the biometry of C. pyriformis for fresh mass per fruit (CV= 35%) and number of seeds per fruit (CV= 24%). Immersion of seeds is recommended with 1000 mg L-1 in GA3 for 24 hours because it increases, accelerates and synchronizes the emergency until reaching 71%.
Keywords: Colombian mahogany, Germination, Gibberellins, Lecythidaceae
5- MODELING AND SIMULATION LAND USE/COVER CHANGE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK FROM REMOTELY SENSING DATA
Ender Buğday, Seda Erkan Buğday
Increasing population, mobility and requirements of human beings have significant effects on formation of land use and land cover. Today, these impacts need to be understand and analyse for the applicability of decision support systems, which are both an important tool in the management of natural resources and urban and rural areas. The aim of this study is to reveal the temporal and spatial change of land cover and human population, in northwest Turkey. For this purpose, using satellite images of 1997-2007 and 2017 years’ land cover was estimated for 2027 by ANN (Artificial Neural Network) approach. Kappa values are 93%, 87% and 95% for 1997, 2007 and 2017 respectively. As a result of study, learning success was 80.6%, and correctness validation value was 90.1% for 2027 simulation. In parallel, the spatial analysis of the population was conducted for 2000-2007-2017. Using exponential rate of change; the population was predicted to increase by concentrating on the urban area and the rural areas surrounding the urban (with a rate of 2.019%) for 2027. According to the results; rural population, urban population, forest and built-up areas is estimated to increase by 4.14%, 5.58%, 2.72% and 0.77% respectively from 2017 to 2027, while the agricultural and water area is estimated to decrease by 3.47% and 0.02% respectively. Consequently, the observation of population movements and the use of ANN approach in simulations could be suggested for success of planning in forest and land management.
Keywords: Computational intelligence, Human population, Landscape, Forecasting
6- SOIL CLASSES AND REGIONAL ORGANIC RESIDUES AFFECT NUTRITION, MORPHO-PHYSIOLOGY AND QUALITY OF COPAIBA SEEDLINGS
Ayrton Senna da Silva Damasceno, Cácio Luiz Boechat, Joacir Morais, Breendon Patrick da Silva Gonçalves, Adriana Miranda de Santana Arauco
Besides being used in the wood industry, copaiba has medicinal properties. However, continuous and excessive extraction both of wood and of oil may impair the regeneration and make the product scarce. It is very important to produce quality seedlings, both for sustainable exploitation and for the recovery of degraded and disturbed areas. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the initial growth and nutrition of Copaiba seedlings, incorporating organic residues into different classes of soils. The treatments were disposed in a design of entirely randomized blocks using the 5x4 factorial scheme, with four organic residues (rice husks in natura, carbonized rice husks, goat manure, carnauba residue), plus a treatment with soil only and four classes of soil (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, Neossolo Quartzarênio, Gleissolo Háplico e Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo), with four repetitions. At 90 days, the morpho-physiological variables of the seedling and macronutrient contents of the aerial part were evaluated. As to the morpho-physiological variables, the carnauba residue was outstanding among the residues tested in the present study. There was an increase in the quantities of P, K, Ca and Mg in the aerial part of copaiba seedlings resulting in the combination between the organic residues and the soil classes.
Keywords: Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Oxisol, Entisol Quartzipsamment, Entisol Aquent, Ultiso
7- RELEVANCE OF STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TO RIO GRANDE BASIN MANAGEMENT
Patrícia Andressa de Ávila, Luiz Otávio Moras Filho, Nathália de Paiva Mendonça, Luís Antônio Coimbra Borges, Lucas Rezende Gomide, Fausto Weimar Acerbi Júnior
This research aims to identify the vulnerabilities of Rio Grande basin in Minas Gerais state as well as to investigate, through technical, legal, social, and governmental aspects, the relevance of SEA as an environmental tool for the conservation and preservation of watersheds. Rio Grande basin evaluation was performed by using this following database: soil classes, land use classification, water quality index, and economic ecological index. It was performed multi-criteria decision analysis based on analytic hierarchy process methodology. 52.5% of the studied area was classified as “good” preservation condition. Alto Grande (GD1), Mortes/Jacaré (GD2) and Furnas (GD3) units did not contain significant percentages of their areas corresponding to the preservation class “very good”. In the studied area, 34.51% was classified as “medium” preservation condition, thus indicating the need for effective measures for the river basin conservation. These findings highlight the potential importance of including the SEA in the decision-making process for plans, policies and programs related to the integrated management of water resources.
Keywords: Conservation, Strategic environmental assessment, Multi-criteria analysis, Management of water resources
8- NONDESTRUCTIVE ESTIMATION OF LEAF NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS
Luiz Felipe Ramalho de Oliveira, Reynaldo Campos Santana, Marcio Leles Romarco de Oliveira
Determination of leaf nutrient concentrations is traditionally performed by carrying out destructive procedures, requiring laboratory chemical analysis, specialized equipment, and skilled labor. However, technological advances in recent years have now made it possible to analyze leaf nutrient concentrations using non-destructive methods such as leaf reflectance. This study evaluates the relationship between leaf reflectance and nutrient concentration in order to develop and apply nutrient indices by proximal sensing data in plantations of Eucalyptus. Two experiments were carried out for the development, application and validation of nutrient indices in Eucalyptus stands in the municipalities of Lassance and Três Marias, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Study I was undertaken in Eucalyptus stands with 25 months old and, three clones. Leaves from the lower crown were visually classified into five color patterns using the Munsell chart for plant tissues. Study II was carried out in commercial stands of a hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake, whith 9, 12, 15 and 25 months old. Analysis revealed strong relationships between leaf nutrients and leaf reflectance in the visible and near infrared regions (400 - 900 nm) of the light spectrum. Correlation analysis between leaf reflectance and nutrients can be useful in an exploratory analysis of leaf nutrient concentration. Some nutrient indices developed (NI, PI, SI and CuI) provided satisfactory estimates of leaf nutrient concentration in Eucalyptus stands. The nutrient indices developed in this study may be a useful alternative to laboratory chemical analysis.
Keywords: Hyperspectral, Leaf reflectance, Vegetation índices, Feature selection, Bootstrap
9- MICROMORPHOLOGICAL OBSERVATION OF SEED OF EUCALYPTUS SPECIES AND MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSES AND MODELING OF THEIR GERMINATION UNDER SALT STRESS AND OSMOTIC CONSTRAINT
Kaouther Mechergui, Wahbi Jaouadi, Souheila Naghmouchi, Moodi Alsubeie, Mohamed Larbi Khouja
Micromorphological characters include surface, lenght and widh of seeds were recorded for 19 species of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) using stereomicroscope to determine the importance of seed morphological characters as an additional tool for identification. With the aim of selecting and valorizing abiotic-stress-tolerant species with landscape and industrial values and would be a potential solution for valorizing dry arid area and development of land degradation, we launched the assessment of the performance of five Eucalyptus species (E. torquata, E. sargenti, E. gillii, E. gompho-cornuta and E. microtheca) under salinity and osmotic potentiel constraints. Several NaCl concentrations (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 g L-1) and several osmotic potentiel (0, -0.03, -0.1, -0.7, -1 and -1.6 MPa) were applied to seeds cultivated in petri dishes for a period of one month. Germination rates, means time of germination and coefficent of velocity were evaluated to better understand the salt stress and osmotic potentiel effect on germination. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the major characteristics pertaining to salinity tolerance. Modeling of germination under both constraints saline and osmotic stress is carried out to predict the behavior of the species. The hybrid E.gompho-cornuta was more tolerant to salt stress (15 % at 12 g L-1) and osmotic potential (61 % at -1.6 MPa) than the others species of Eucalyptus; it showed a higher germination percentage under all tested potentials, when compared to the not hybrid species of Eucalyptus. Our analyses of seeds morphology revealed that the observations shown diversity of morphological characters in seeds. Area, lengh and widh of seeds vary significantly between species of Eucalyptus. Micromorphological characters can provide basis for classification and delimitation of genus Eucalyptus.
Keywords: Eucalyptus, Seeds morphology trait, Salt stress, Osmotic potentials, Principal component analysis, Modeling
10- PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY FOR OBTAINING THE YOUNG’S MODULUS IN WOODS
Taiane Oliveira Guedes, Rodrigo Allan Pereira, Fernando Pujaico Rivieira, José Reinaldo Moreira da Silva
Proposing technological innovations in the investigation of the structure and behaviour of wood is important to optimize its use. The assimilation of methods diffused in other areas, such as particle velocimetry (PIV), can allow a rich range of information for different aspects. It was aimed determine of the Young module, applying the PIV technique and that is independent of the density of the wood. The Young modulus value was obtained by destructive test, by the technique of transverse vibration and also by the PIV technique. Was used Cedrela spp. and Eucalyptus cloeziana and the data from the Young module were compared and correlated. The PIV technique presented values of the Young's modulus similar to those of the universal test machine. The PIV technique proved to be an accurate and simple execution tool for the calculation of the young module of wood by means of image analysis with the algorithm.
Keywords: PIV, Modulus of elasticity, Solid mechanics, Measure techniques