1- NANOPARTICLES-BASED WOOD PRESERVATIVES: THE NEXT GENERATION OF WOOD PROTECTION?
Cilene Cristina Borges, Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli, Thiago Moreira Cruz, Paulo Junio Duarte, Thomaz Antunes Junqueira
Wood is a natural material that presents a great variation of properties. Many treatments have been developed in order to extend the service life of wood products. Nowadays, products with low toxicity and economic viability are a challenge to researchers. Nanotechnology has been indicated as a solution to this issue, since wood preservatives can be utilized in low concentration, promoting satisfactory results in terms of protection with no color changes. The main goal of this review is to present nanotechnology advances on wood protection. Self-cleaning surfaces, scratch and weathering resistance, and biocides properties have been achieved through nanoparticles applications. Studies evaluating the performance of nanoparticles from silver, boron, cupper, zinc, zinc oxide, zinc borate, and titanium dioxide, with or without acrylic emulsion on wood protections have reported promising findings. Tests performed against termites, rot, mold and stain fungi, and UV degradation have demonstrated that some biocides have their properties improved in nanoscale, while others do not present the same biocidal properties. Controlled release and encapsulation technologies are another important matter once it can increase the effectiveness of wood treatments. Nanoparticles risk assessment for human health and the environment are still incipient. Despite of that, nanozinc oxide and nanotitanium dioxide present encouraging potential. Nanozinc oxide has been reported as a promising antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agent, able to control several kinds of cancer cells. On the other hand, nanotitanium dioxide had lower ecotoxicity impacts to the environment than silver. Based on this review, we consider wood treatments based on nanoparticles might play an important role in the next generation of wood protection systems.
Keywords: Wood protection, Treatments, Nanostructures, Nanotechnology, Biocides
2- PROGENY PERFORMANCE AND PATHOGEN ATTACK RELATIVE TO ELEVATION IN A NEOTROPICAL TREE
Daniel Renison, Hernán Bergero, Florencia Soteras, M. Lucrecia Herrero, Juan Manuel Rodríguez, Romina C. Torres, Ana M. Cingolani, Isabell Hensen
Climate and resource availability at the parent tree location are known to explain progeny characteristics; however, few studies have examined the role of resistance or tolerance to pathogens, even though climate is a main driver of pathogen abundance. We hypothesize that climate at the parent tree location has a relatively greater influence on progeny resistance or tolerance to pathogens than other progeny characteristics, such as seed mass or seedling growth. As a study species we used the vulnerable Neotropical tree Kageneckia lanceolata known to be susceptible to damping-off diseases. We collected seeds from 60 trees along the species` entire elevational gradient in central Argentina as a surrogate for climatic gradient and selected an ample array of parent tree sizes and rockiness under the crown as surrogate of tree access to resources. Seedling survival in a common nursery significantly increased with elevation of the parent tree from 40 to 80 % (P < 0.001), with damping-off being the only identified cause of mortality. We also found a non-significant trend suggesting that proportional growth during the cold semester increased with elevation (P = 0.083). Seed mass, germination, and growth of seedlings were not significantly influenced by elevation (P > 0.05). Parent tree size and rockiness were not related to any of the measured progeny characteristics. We conclude that the pathogenic environment around parental plants might have a great influence on progeny resistance or tolerance to pathogens and suggest that incorporating the pathogen dimension into future progeny studies may yield important findings.
Keywords: Altitude, Argentina, Córdoba, Kageneckia lanceolata
3- RAINFALL WATER QUALITY UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST STANDS
Rosângela Francisca de Paula Vitor Marques, Marcela de Castro Nunes Santos Terra, Vanessa Alves Mantovani, André Ferreira Rodrigues, Gustavo Alves Pereira, Renato Antônio da Silva, Carlos Rogério de Mello
The rainfall-forest canopy interaction can impact on the chemical and physical rain-water features and is expected that different forests will have different effects on throughfall rain-water quality parameters. This study aimed (i) to compare chemical and physical rain-water quality variables observed in both gross precipitation and throughfall measured in two different forest stands (Atlantic semideciduous forest remnant - AFR, and a Eucalyptus urograndis plantation - EUP). Each stand was monitored with 8 internal rain-gauges and one external rain-gauge, encompassing the period from March 2015 to March 2016. The results pointed out a seasonal behavior of chemical and physical rain-water variables. Gross precipitation and throughfall presented different behaviors for pH, NH3-, NH4+ and Ca hardness for AFR, and NH3-, NH4+, Phosphate, Chloride, Ca hardness, Total Dissolved Solids and Conductivity for EUP. Besides, significant differences between the stands were found in terms of throughfall indicators for some of the rainfall events, remarkably NH3 and NH4 which were always higher at AFR. Additionally, we have noticed an effect of the monitoring points location as sources of spatial variability.
Keywords: Throughfall, Gross precipitation, Forest hydrology
4- DIVERSITY OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS OF BRAZIL
Etienne Winagraski, Glaciela Kaschuk, Pedro Henrique Riboldi Monteiro, Celso Garcia Auer, Antônio Rioyei Higa
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs) are important for the development and establishment of forest species in the field, but there is little knowledge of the dynamics of these fungi in forest ecosystems and commercial reforestation. The objective was to compile information in order to identify existing patterns in AMF diversity in brazilian forest ecosystems. A systematic review was carried out using the key words diversity, mycorrhizal and Brazil in the Web of Knowledge and Periódico Capes databases, resulting in 2063 articles. From the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 78 articles were selected and 164 species of FMAs were observed in forest ecosystems in the national territory. Same species like Acaulospora scrobiculta e Acaulospora mellea were observed in most the brazilian biomes. From these AMFs we identified amplilocated species, which may be recommended for studies as inoculants. A. scrobiculata and C. etunicatum have potential to use as inoculant in forest successions.
Keywords: Bioma, Planted forest, Succession, Symbiotic association
5- RELEVANCE OF STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TO RIO GRANDE BASIN MANAGEMENT
Patrícia Andressa de Ávila, Luiz Otávio Moras Filho, Nathália de Paiva Mendonça, Luís Antônio Coimbra Borges, Lucas Rezende Gomide, Fausto Weimar Acerbi Júnior
This research aims to identify the vulnerabilities of Rio Grande basin in Minas Gerais state as well as to investigate, through technical, legal, social, and governmental aspects, the relevance of SEA as an environmental tool for the conservation and preservation of watersheds. Rio Grande basin evaluation was performed by using this following database: soil classes, land use classification, water quality index, and economic ecological index. It was performed multi-criteria decision analysis based on analytic hierarchy process methodology. 52.5% of the studied area was classified as “good” preservation condition. Alto Grande (GD1), Mortes/Jacaré (GD2) and Furnas (GD3) units did not contain significant percentages of their areas corresponding to the preservation class “very good”. In the studied area, 34.51% was classified as “medium” preservation condition, thus indicating the need for effective measures for the river basin conservation. These findings highlight the potential importance of including the SEA in the decision-making process for plans, policies and programs related to the integrated management of water resources.
Keywords: Conservation, Strategic environmental assessment, Multi-criteria analysis, Management of water resources
6-COMPARISON OF REGENERATED CELLULOSE MEMBRANE COAGULATED IN SULPHATE BASED COAGULANT
Nyak Syazwani Nyak Mazlan, Sarani Zakaria, Sinyee Gan, Chia Chin Hua, Khairunnisa Waznah Baharin
Cellulose from cotton linter was dissolved in NaOH/urea solvent at -13 °C. Then the dissolved cellulose solvent was coagulated in distilled water and two types of sulphate based coagulant which were 5 wt% H2SO4 and 5 wt% (NH4)2SO4 to form regenerated cellulose membrane (RCM). Dried membranes were characterized by using XRD, tensile machine and FTIR. As compared the other two types of sulphate based coagulant, the RCM coagulated in distilled water has the highest tensile and crystallinity but showed the lowest value for the elongation at break. Meanwhile, the RCM coagulated in 5 wt% (NH4)2SO4 has the lowest tensile strength and crystallinity with the highest value of the elongation at break. The RCM coagulated in 5 wt% H2SO4 has intermediate results for all tensile strength, elongation at break and crystallinity compared to those coagulated in distilled water and 5 wt% (NH4)2SO4.
Keywords: Coagulant, Crystallinity, NaOH/urea, Regenerated cellulose membrane
7-THERMAL PROFILE OF WOOD SPECIES FROM THE BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID REGION SUBMITTED TO PYROLYSIS
Ananias Francisco Dias Júnior, Carlos Rogério Andrade, Thiago de Paula Protásio, José Otávio Brito, Paulo Fernando Trugilho, Michel Picanço Oliveira, Graziela Baptista, Vidaurre Dambroz
The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal decomposition profile of 10 wood species from the semi-arid region of Brazil using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to investigate their potential as biomass energy sources. First, flash carbonization was carried out in a muffle furnace, in which wood samples were heated to a maximum temperature of 500 °C, and the product yields were determined. TGA was performed using sawdust samples heated at 10 °C min−1 up to 1000 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere at a flow rate of 50 mL min−1. The thermal decomposition profile was used to evaluate which wood species was more thermally stable. Mimosa tenuiflora and Poincianella pyramidaliswoods were the most suitable as biomass energy sources for charcoal production because of their thermal stability and good charcoal yields. The thermal stability of the 10 wood samples was confirmed by the analysis of the carbonization yields.
Keywords: Thermal effect, Thermal degradation of biomass, Carbonization, Heat action on woo
8-NITROGENATED FERTILIZATION FAVORS REJUVENATION AND VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF Ilex paraguariensis
Bruno Nascimento, Alexandra Cristina Schatz Sá, Gabriel Souza, Mariane de Oliveira Pereira, Marcio Carlos Navroski
The vegetative growth of plants is dependent on the nutritional conditions of the soil, mainly in relation to the N element. This, favours the formation of cytokines and auxins, essential hormones for sprouting and rooting, respectively. The objective of this search was to evaluate the influence of nitrogen fertilization of Ilex paraguariensis mother trees on epicormic shooting and rooting of its cuttings. Five treatments of fertilization were applied on the mother trees in the study area in the municipality of Urupema, being: control; 250 g of urea (N); 250 g of NPK (5-20-10); 500 g of NPK, and; 250 g of NPK with 30 g of micronutrients. Two evaluations (at 240 and 480 days) were made for: trees with shoots (%), average shoots number and their average length (cm). Shoots were collected at both vegetative evaluations after the application of the experiment (August 2016) and sectioned into cuttings. Cuttings variables were evaluated: survival (%); rooting (%), callus formation (%) and average root number. The best response to epicormic shooting was obtained with 250 g of NPK at 480 days for trees with shoots (>75%), shoot number (4.4) and shoot length (9.9), but considerable results were also obtained at 240 days with urea. For cutting, the best results were also obtained from shoots from 480 days for most treatments (>80% survival and rooting). Nitrogen fertilization is essential for a successful rescue and vegetative propagation by cutting of I. paraguariensis, and longer periods may be able to boost these results.
Keywords: Complete girdling, Cuttings, Fertilization, Mate tree, NPK
9-ESTABLISHMENT OF QUALITY CLASSES FOR HARDWOOD FLOORINGS BY SIMULATED USE
Mônica Bezerra de Oliveira, José Reinaldo Moreira da Silva, Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein, José Tarcísio Lima
Many wood species have been employed as floor however their performance can greatly varies according to the wood properties and the type of application. Mechanical tests can be performed for simulating the wood floors in service, but there is no system for sorting the materials as a function of their quality as flooring. In this study, tests were carried out in commercial wood species to simulate their performance as flooring and a new standard of resistance classes for is proposed. Moreover, the performance of new wood species as wood floor in service was investigated. Bowdichia nitida Benth (Spr.), Dipteryx odorata (aubl.) Willd, Mimosa scabrella Benth and Tabebuia impetiginosa wood were investigated. Commercial wood floors were submitted to the following tests: falling of spherical steel ball, rolling load and static and dynamic friction. The indentation caused by loads applied in small áreas were measured by an automated device coupled to a computer. Three classes of resistance were established according to the wood floors performance in the simulation tests: high for indentations lower than 0.005 mm from the tests of loads applied in small areas, intermediate for depressions from 0,121 to 0,300 mm from the rolling load test and low, for depressions greater than 0,301 from the falling of steel ball test. These classes can be used as reference values for predicting mechanical performance as wood floor of unknown species and for comparisons between wood floors.
Keywords: Less known woods, Mechanical resistance, Flooring standards
10-VARNISHING PERFORMANCE OF CRIMEAN JUNIPER (Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb.)
Mustafa Öncel, Hasan Vurdu, Alperen Kaymakçı, Osman Emre Özkan, Hakan Aydoğan
The purpose of this study is to determine the varnish layer hardness and the varnish adhesion strength of the varnished Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb.) wood growing naturally in the Kastamonu region of Turkey. According to ASTM-D 3023-98, test samples were varnished with Caparol ™ Yachtlack brand UV-resistant polyurethane alkyd resin high gloss varnish and Cadence ™ brand water-based acrylic resin gloss varnish. The varnish adhesion strength test was carried out by using Shimadzu brand AG-IC 20/50 KN STD universal testing machine. The varnish layer hardness was measured by using König pendulum hardness tester in accordance with ASTM D4366-14. Also, Model CM2500d Konica® Minolta spectrophotometer was used for colour evaluation. The L*a*b* colour space was used for colour test. The adhesion strength of the polyurethane varnish and the water-based varnish were determined 2.81 MPa and 2.25 MPa respectively. Surface hardness value for water-based varnishes and polyurethane varnishes were determined 71 and 25 oscillation respectively. Colour differences between unvarnished samples and water-based varnished samples were determined 9 units. Colour differences between unvarnished samples and polyurethane varnished samples were determined 16,96, while colour differences between water based varnished samples and polyurethane varnished samples were determined 9,05 unit. Determining the performance of polyurethane and water-based varnish applications for the Crimean juniper wood will provide guidance in determining which type of varnish will be better for varnish applications of juniper wood. As a result, in the varnishing of the Crimean juniper wood, it is recommended that water-based acrylic varnish should be used when surface hardness is required, and polyurethane alkyd varnish should be used when better surface adhesion strength is desired.
Keywords: Polyurethane alkyd varnish, Varnish adhesion strength, Varnish layer hardness, Varnish colour measurement, Water-based acrylic varnish