Fábio Henrique  Krenchinski,  Renato  Nunes  Costa,  Natalia  da  Cunha  Bevilaqua, João Alexandre Galon, Johnny Angelo de Oliveira, Caio Antonio Carbonari, Edivaldo Domingues Velini


Eucalyptus stands out in the Brazilian silvicultural sector as the most planted tree species for commercial purposes; thus, practices that facilitate handling and improve wood quality are increasingly required. Although artificial mechanical pruning has been used for this crop, the use of herbicides for pruning can be more practical, rapid and have lower costs. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the use of glufosinate ammonium in the chemical pruning of eucalyptus plants. Eucalyptus seedlings were transplanted into 10-L pots filled with soil and substrate and subjected to the treatments (mechanical pruning, chemical pruning, and no pruning) at 90 days after transplanting. Lateral branches were cut with pruning shears for the mechanical pruning. Glufosinate ammonium (500 g a.i. ha-1) was applied to the sides of the plants for the chemical pruning, simulating a field planting row, using a CO2-pressurized sprayer; the untreated branches were covered with plastic bags to avoid receiving the herbicide. The percentage of artificial pruning used was 60% of the green crown of the eucalyptus plants. Glufosinate, glutamate, and ammonia contents, electron transport rate, percentage of pruning, plant height, number of leaves, and dry matter mass of the plants were evaluated. The application of glufosinate ammonium defoliate the treated branches and did not affect significantly the parts of the plants that did not receive the herbicide regarding the evaluated compounds, and growth of the plants, denoting that glufosinate ammonium can be used for chemical pruning of eucalyptus plants.

Keywords: Ammonia, Defoliation, Chemical pruning, Herbicide, Glutamate



Diego dos Santos Vieira, Marcio Leles Romarco de Oliveira, João Ricardo Vasconcellos Gama, Bruno Lafetá Oliveira, Anna Karyne Costa Rego, Talita Godinho Bezerra


The objective of this study was to analyze the adaptive cluster sampling (ACS), simple random sampling (SRS) and systematic sampling (SS) processes to obtain the number of ha-1 trees of Carapa guianensis Aubl. in the Amazon. The data were obtained through 100% inventory and sampling simulations, considering a DBH ≥ 25 cm, a sampling intensity of 4%, a maximum error of 10% and plots of 0.09, 0.16 and 0.25 ha. The last two sizes were only used to analyze their effect on the ACS estimators. The processes were evaluated for accuracy, precision (E%) and confidence interval (CI), while the mean ha-1 of the processes were compared with that of the 100% inventory by the Z test. The ACS process showed no significant difference between its average ha-1 trees and the 100% inventory, and it was also the most accurate and the only one whose CI was true. However, it presented a final sample intensity 3.6 times greater than the simple and systematic random samplings, in addition to E% above 10%, which makes it unacceptable, legally, and economically unfeasible. The other processes had densities significantly higher than the 100% inventory, with sample intensities lower than ACS and E% lower than 10%, making them legally viable. The use of larger plots in the ACS implies larger clusters and a greater tendency to underestimate the number of trees, resulting in larger sample errors and less accuracy.

Keywords: Adaptive cluster sampling, Simple random sampling, Systematic sampling



Marcia Silva Jesus, Alfredo Napoli, Paulo Fernando Trugilho, Áureo A. Abreu Júnior, Clara Lisseth Mendoza Martinez, Thaís Pereira Freitas


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the moisture content in the mass and energy balance of Eucalyptus wood during the pyrolysis process in a macro-lab scale. Two cylindrical specimens of 30 cm length, 12 cm diameter, and two pre-established moisture contents of 0.83% and 13%. The experiment was carried out in an electric oven, heating rate of 5oC min-1 and a final temperature of 500oC. Non-condensable gases flow, and their respective masses and energetic potentials were estimated from the data provided by the software Macro Thermogravimetric connected to the oven. The moisture contents poorly influenced charcoal yields (30.2 e 30.4%). The most energetic non-condensable gases (2.549 MJ) during wood pyrolysis at 0.83% of moisture content, were produced. Water presence on wood decreases the concentration of the energetic compounds. About 53% of total energy was concentrated in the charcoal and 47% in sub-products. From this significant amount of sub-products, it is suggested to consider the mass balance and flow of energy compounds in further researches of integration and optimization technologies in both production and gas burning processes, aiming to generate new industrial mechanisms to improve yield and quality of these products.

Keywords: Charcoal, Gases,  Macro ATG oven,  Wood energy



Rafaela Stange, Helena Cristina Vieiraa, Polliaa D` Rios, Silvana Nisgoski


Anatomical characteristics of wood and charcoal from Campomanesia xanthocarpaEugenia pyriformisMyrcia retorta and Plinia peruviana were described. The material came from Planalto Catarinense region, southern Brazil. For each species, three discs at diameter at breast height were collected from three randomly selected trees. All the disks were sectioned to obtain samples in different positions of the trunk (bark, intermediate and pith). The macroscopic analysis of the wood was done and samples were wrapped in aluminum foil and carbonized in a muffle furnace, with a final temperature of 450 °C and a heating rate of 1.66 °C min-1. It was observed that the vessel diameters decrease, while the vessel frequency increased for all species at different positions after the carbonization process. In general, height and width of the rays showed reduction. However, Myrcia retorta presented different behavior, after carbonization the values ​​increased. In addition, it was possible to verify that the anatomical characteristics of the wood and charcoal are compatible, so, for the evaluated species it is possible the identification of the charcoal based on the anatomical structures of the wood.

Keywords: Anatomical discrimination, Carbonization process, Native species



Adriana Falcão Dutra, Maristela Machado Araujo, Luciane Almeri Tabaldi, Daniele Guarienti Rorato, Daniele Rodrigues Gomes, Felipe Turchetto


The quantification of the hydric necessity for production of qualified seedlings is of extremely importance, and the substrate is a mediator of such influence. However, few studies are carried out in this context and, mainly, with native species as Luehea divaricata Mart. et Zucc., which presents elevated wood potential and for restoration of riparian forests. Thus, the work consisted in evaluating different substrates and irrigation schemes, in the survival and growing of seedlings, characterizing the hydric demand of the species, using factorial scheme composed by four formulations of substrate (100T: 100% turf (peat); 80T: 80% peat and 20% carbonized rice husk - CRH; 60T: 60% peat and 40% CRH; 40T: 40% peat and 60% CRH) and six irrigation schemes. Variables of survival, height, stem diameter, production of aerial dry mass, root and total, leaf area and Dickson Quality Index were evaluated. We observed elevated survival, height, stem diameter, aerial dry mass and leaf area in irrigation of 16 mm day-1, combined with the substrates 100T and 80T. The dry masses and Dickson Quality Index, independent of the irrigation scheme, reflected in a greater carbon accumulation. Thus, we concluded that the substrates based on peat, mixed with until 20% of CRH provide a greater seedling growth, making them available to the hardening and expedition more quickly, when associated to the irrigation scheme of 16 mm day-1Luehea divaricata is a native species that can be considered with high hydric demand during the phase of seedling production.

Keywords: Luehea divaricata, Irrigation, Substrate, Forest nursery



Maria Helena  Fermino,  Maristela  Machado  Araujo,  Suelen  Carpenedo  Aimi,  Felipe  Turchetto,  Álvaro  Luís  Pasquetti  Berghetti,  Thairini  Claudino  Zavistanovicz,  Patrícia  Mieth, Adriana Maria Griebeler, Juliana de Marques Vilella


Increased production of agro-industrial waste is a global concern, requiring proper disposal. In this sense, they can represent alternative sources for substrate production, adding value to the materials and reducing the cost of seedlings in the nursery. However, their proportions in the mixture should be adequate for better use of water and nutrients, ensuring better seedling quality. The objective of this study was to identify the potential of rice husk and peach kernel residue, as a secondary substrate component, for the production of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. The carbonated (CRH), hydrolyzed (HRH) rice husk and crushed peach kernel (CPK) were added at 0, 10, 20 and 30% to an organic substrate. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and correlation analysis between the variables of the substrates and the morphological and physiological attributes. The results indicated that the HRH and CPK can add value to the agro-industrial residue when mixed to the organic compound in proportions of 20 and 10%, respectively, being adequate and compatible with the use of CRH in the proportion of up to 30%. Eucalyptus grandis seedlings, after 90 days of cultivation, presented quality to be hardened and dispatched when grown on organic compound substrates with up to 30% CRH, 20% HRH and 10% CPK.

Keywords: Alternative substrates,  Carbonated rice husk, Hydrolyzed rice husk,  Crushed peach kernel,  Forest nursery



Ricardo Mezzomo, Jéssica Mengue Rolim, Tales Poletto, Victoria Cozer Rosenthal, Lucas Graciolli Savian, Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger, Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz


O cultivo de erva-mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) foi intensificado no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, como resultado da avaliação do preço pago ao produtor. No entanto, estudos relacionados ao Fosarium pathosystem vs. yerba-mate ainda são insuficientes, de modo que muitos produtores enfrentaram perdas significativas na produção de plantas devido à ocorrência de podridão das raízes. Considerando o que precede, os objetivos deste estudo foram: a) caracterizar morfologicamente o Fusarium spp. Isolados coletados em plantas doentes de erva-mate; b) selecionar caracteres morfológicos eficientes na separação do Fusariumspp. isola em grupos de similaridade; c) identificar o Fusariumspp. isola-se ao nível das espécies através da sequenciação da região genômica do fator de alongamento 1-α (TEF-1a); e d) testar a patogenicidade do Fusariumisolados de spp selecionados com base na caracterização morfológica. Para tal, foram feitas coleções em cinco municípios do estado para o isolamento de patógenos e os pontos de coleta foram georreferenciados. Os 39 isolados foram caracterizados morfologicamente por variáveis ​​médias como crescimento micelial, esporulação, comprimento e largura da macroconidia, formato de microconídeo, pigmentação das colônias e formação de clamidósteros e testados quanto à patogenicidade por inoculação do substrato. As variáveis ​​utilizadas na caracterização morfológica foram eficientes na discriminação dos isolados em sete grupos, especialmente o comprimento da macronidia associada à esporulação. Sete isolados patogênicos de Fusariumspp foram identificados e estes também foram identificados molecularmente através da sequenciação da região do gene TEF-1α. O sequenciamento da região TEF-1α consolidou a identificação de isolados patogênicos como F. solani e F. oxysporum .

Keywords: Yerba-mate, UPGMA, TEF-1α, Pathogenicity



Sarita Soraia de Alcântara Laudares, Luís Antônio Coimbra Borges, Patrícia Andressa de Ávila,  Athila  Leandro  de  Oliveira,  Kmila  Gomes  da  Silva,  Dagmar  Cristina  de  Alcântara Laudares


The great expectation about the New Forest Code consisted in reducing the hermeneutics distortions and increasing legal certainty for farmers. However, the new legislation raised more uncertainties and discussions, mainly because it consolidates the anthropic use and allows of low-impact activities in areas that should, by law, be kept untouched. This study aimed to survey and to describe the legislation related to protected areas on the rural area (APP and RL), to analyze the consolidated forms of use, occupation and low impact activities that can be developed in these areas, and to propose sustainable technical alternatives for interventions in the areas already consolidated and their recovery. The text is based on literature and documents, elaborated on the survey and study of legal aspects about protected areas in rural properties of Brazil and the main low-impact farming techniques, highlighting the agroforestry systems as an alternative of consolidated occupations in environmental protection areas. The text provides in an organized way the main aspects of the legislation on such areas and describes the sustainable activities allowed in APP and RL according to the flexibility of the new Forest Code.

Keywords: Brazilian Forest Code, Small farmer, Agroforest



Mehmet Korkmaz, Demet Gurer


Forest villagers constitute the poorest of the society in the underdeveloped and developing countries. Efforts for the rural development of forest villages are important for combating poverty, regulating the relationship with forest villagers and ensuring sustainable management of forests since the rural people subsist on forests. As the most important way of organized movement in such settlement areas, cooperatives represent one of the most crucial actors in rural development. However, it seems that cooperatives cannot provide adequate contribution to the rural development in Turkey. In this research, the financial performance of the cooperatives operating in the forest villages located within the boundaries of Bucak and Sutculer Forest Directorate where forestry activities are carried out intensively in Turkey was analysed using the TOPSIS method which is one of the multi-criteria decision-making methods. The results of the study revealed that the financial performances of all the cooperatives were low in the years when they were analysed. The most important reasons for low financial performance include the fact that: (i) the cooperatives mainly operated in the field of wood production and the business volume in that field was inadequate, (ii) their capital was insufficient since the members assumed lower share, (iii) they had challenges in accessing constant funds for investment, (iv) the state subsidies decreased, (v) the number of members was low, (vi) they were unable to compete with large companies.

Keywords: Forest villages, Financial ranking, Cooperatives, TOPSIS, Rural development



Patrícia  Andressa  de  Ávila;  Luiz  Otávio  Moras  Filho;  Nathália  de  Paiva  Mendonça; Luís Antônio Coimbra Borges; Lucas Rezende Gomide; Fausto Weimar Acerbi Júnior


This research aims to identify the vulnerabilities of Rio Grande basin in Minas Gerais state as well as to investigate, through technical, legal, social, and governmental aspects, the relevance of SEA as an environmental tool for the conservation and preservation of watersheds. Rio Grande basin evaluation was performed by using this following database: soil classes, land use classification, water quality index, and economic ecological index. It was performed multi-criteria decision analysis based on analytic hierarchy process methodology. 52.5% of the studied area was classified as “good” preservation condition. Alto Grande (GD1), Mortes/Jacaré (GD2) and Furnas (GD3) units did not contain significant percentages of their areas corresponding to the preservation class “very good”. In the studied area, 34.51% was classified as “medium” preservation condition, thus indicating the need for effective measures for the river basin conservation. These findings highlight the potential importance of including the SEA in the decision-making process for plans, policies and programs related to the integrated management of water resources.

Keywords: Conservation, Strategic environmental assessment, Multi-criteria analysis, Management of water resources