1- POLYESTER COMPOSITES REINFORCED WITH MALEIC ANHYDRIDE-TREATED FILAMENTS FROM MAUVE
Ricardo Gabriel de Almeida Mesquita, Antônia Amanda da Silva César, Lourival Marin Mendes, José Manoel Marconcini, Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli
The objective of this study was to evaluate the polyester-based fiber composites reinforced with filaments/fibers of mauve treated with NaOH and maleic anhydride. The chemical treatment of the mauve filament/fibers (3 cm) was carried out, first with NaOH, followed by maleic anhydride. The resin used was ortho unsaturated polyester with addition of catalyst peroxide methyl ethyl ketone. The composites were prepared with 15% fiber (w/w) and tested for water absorption properties, three-point bending, tensile and impact strength. Fiberglass composites were made in the same way to compare with mauve composites. The results demonstrate the potential use of mauve fibers. For some properties the mauve composites perform better mechanical properties than fiberglass composites. The treatment of the particles had varied effect, but for the most mechanical properties, the treatment was harming. However, for the water absorption was observed a reduction of 35% in composites with treated mauve fibers.
Keywords: Plant fibers, Lignocellulosic, Resin, Glass fiber
2- HEIGHT-DIAMETER MODELS FOR Eucalyptus sp. PLANTATIONS IN BRAZIL
Antonio Carlos Ferraz Filho, Blas Mola-Yudego, Andressa Ribeiro, José Roberto Soares Scolforo, Rodolfo Araújo Loos, Henrique Ferraço Scolforo
The use of height-diameter models have important applications in the management of eucalyptus plantations. The aim of this paper is to provide adequate height models based on the diameter and stand variables that could be easily used and applied to plantation’s management. The data was based on tests located in Espírito Santo and Bahia. A total of 312 plots, including 35 different treatments (different initial planting densities, number of thinning operations, thinnings, fertilization regimes, among others), and four different clones. This resulted in 2,407 conditions for 85,608 tree measurements. The constructed equations were based on mixed-effect models, in order to accommodate possible autocorrelations, to address variations between sites and to obtain locally calibrated estimates. Among the different model structures and combination of variables tested and presented, the best model showed a coefficient of determination of 0.953 and 0.988, for the fixed and fixed+random parts, respectively. The model included a random factor for measurements-within-tree and tree-within-plot. The bias of the fixed part was 0.208 cm (0.0659%). We believe the models in this study can have broad applications in management and inventory methods applied to plantations.
Keywords: Forest inventory, Mixed effect models, Tree height prediction
3- SELECTING SUITABLE FOREST AREAS FOR HONEY PRODUCTION USING THE AHP: A CASE STUDY IN TURKEY
Ersin Güngör, Gokhan Sem
Honey production forests (HPFs) are crucial forest areas for the preservation and transfer of biodiversity for future generations, provision of sustainable food safety, supporting rural development, and the rehabilitation of barren forests so that society can benefit from them. The purpose of this study is to prepare a model for conducting planning and prioritizing for HPF areas. For this purpose, using a multidimensional decision support model, we determined the most suitable three areas by way of prioritizing potential HPF areas identified. Bartın in Turkey which was chosen as the area of study, in line with the criteria (ecological–environmental, economic, and socio-cultural) set out using the participatory approach. The ranking and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methods were employed. The results of the study indicate that public institutions and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) prioritize ecological–environmental criteria (especially the type of honey) in their identification of HPFs, whereas the locals care more about the economic criteria, especially the potential for honey production, when identifying HPFs. Moreover, the fact that the level of demand is at the top among the economy-based sub-criteria indicates that the demands and expectations of interest groups should definitely be taken into consideration in the functional provision of forest resources. If HPF areas are planned and established by paying attention to the priorities, HPFs would contribute to an increase in added value and social welfare in the local area as well as to employment, rural development, and the sustainable management of forest resources.
Keywords: Food safety, Participation, Rural development, Sustainable forest management , Decisions making, Turkey
4- ANALYSIS OF THE PHENOLOGY DYNAMICS OF BRAZILIAN CAATINGA SPECIES WITH NDVI TIME SERIES
Claudionor Ribeiro da Silva, Sérgio Luís Dias Machado, Aracy Alves de Araújo, Carlos Alberto Matias de Abreu Junior
In Brazil there are six well-defined biomes and the Caatinga represents 9.92% of the total area. This biome is exclusively Brazilian and very rich in biodiversity. Because it has low resistance to human interference is necessary to know the important factors in monitoring the biome. Vegetation coverage and climate are two of these factors, as they indicate the intensity of human activity and the wear caused with time. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been recently explored in the description of tree phenology. In this study we sought to associate NDVI/Landsat values to a climatic variable (phenomena El-Nino and La-Nina - NINONINA) in order to describe the phenological behavior of the Caatinga in the Parque Nacional da Serra das Capivaras in the state of Piauí/Brazil. A time series analysis was carried out, describing the intrinsic parameters of the series (Seasonality and Trends), the forecast of NDVI values using SARIMA model and co-integration between NDVI and NINONINA series. The results showed that the NDVI series presents seasonally, but does not exhibit a trend. The forecasting process presenting relatively low error at a 95% confidence interval. Finally, it was observed that the NDVI series is co-integrated with the NINONINA series.
Keywords: El-Nino, La-Nina, Forecast, Co-integration, SARIMA
5- THE DYNAMICS OF THE SUBSTRATE RECOVERY OF WASTE DUMPS IN CALCARY MINING UNDER NATURAL REGENERATION
Marcelle Teodoro Lima, Admilson Írio Ribeiro, Herly Carlos Teixeira Dias, Alexandra Guidelli Rosa, Gustavo Trevizan Pires, Kelly Cristina Tonello
This study aimed to evaluate the dynamics of the physical and chemical recovery of the substrates of waste dumps of different ages undergoing natural regeneration, in a calcary mining in Salto de Pirapora - SP, Brazil. Characterization of the vegetation, vegetation and physical and chemical cover of the substrates of the abandoned waste dumps since 1994 and 2013 and the soil of a native forest fragment adjacent to the mining was carried out. Twelve plots of 10x10m were allocated in each environment. It was verified that the soil cover rate with herbaceous, grassy, regenerating and litter of the sterile stacks are similar to the native forest fragment. The same was observed for the physical characterization of soil resistance to penetration, soil moisture content and relative light index. For the chemical characteristics, in all areas sampled there is aluminum deficiency which, consequently, presented low potential acidity and alkaline pH. The CEC of the substrates of the waste dumps presented values similar to the CEC of the native forest fragment, with abundance in some essential nutrients, indicating the possibility of vegetation development in the sterile stacks and the contribution of the natural regeneration to the substrates. Thus, the plant-soil relationship via natural regeneration in the sterile piles contributed to the improvement of the edaphic quality of the substrates over time, being a potential form of recovery in calcary mining. Thereby, the Fabaceae predominated on the waste dumps, especially Leucaena leucocephala, which, despite being an exotic species, is relevant for the current recovery stage of the substrates.
Keywords: Physical properties of soil, Leucaena leucocephala, Degraded areas
6- ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR ESTIMATING TREE VOLUME IN THE BRAZILIAN SAVANNA
Talles Hudson Souza Lacerda, Christian Dias Cabacinha, Carlos Alberto Araújo Júnior, Renato Dourado Maia, Klaus Wesley de Souza Lacerda
Considering the importance of studies that improve the volume and biomass estimative for the Cerrado biome trees, this work has as objective use artificial neural networks to estimate the volume of trees from different species of cerrado sensu stricto and compare these estimates with ones obtained from volumetric equations traditionally used for the same aim. The data was obtained from 15 squared samples with 400 m² in an area with 29.6 ha. In each plot the diameter at breast height (DBH) (diameter at 1.30 m from soil) and height (H), both total (Ht) and commercial (Hc) height, of all individuals with DBH equals or higher than 3.0 cm were measured. Then each tree was felled in order to obtain their volume. Was used the Huber method considering measurement along the stem up to diameter equals to 3.0 cm. The data obtained of the measurement of the all individuals was used to train artificial neural networks (ANN) and adjust volumetric equations in order to estimate the total volume and commercial volume of trees. The results allowed the following conclusions: ANN can be used to estimate the total and commercial volume; both ANN and regression models are efficient in obtaining the estimated volume of trees in Cerrado biome, presenting low errors and artificial neural networks that consider the specie as a categorical input variable and trained with all data present better results than the ones that are trained for each specie in separately and without the categorical input.
Keywords: ANN, Artificial intelligence, Dendrometry
7- PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS AFFECTING DENDROMETRIC PARAMETERS AND EUCALYPTUS WOOD QUALITY FOR PULPING WOOD
Carlos Andre Stuepp, Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso, Pedro Henrique Riboldi Monteiro, Dagma Kratz, Ivar Wendling, Katia Christina Zuffellato-Ribas
The Australian species Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel. has a strong commercial importance due to the extraction of essential oils from its leaves used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. In order to obtain an efficient plant production system of M. alternifolia the mini-cuttings technique and the clonal mini-garden management in the productivity and rooting of mini-cuttings and different substrate compositions were analyzed during all the seasons. Mini-stumps derived from cuttings and grown in pots (2 L), were submitted to successive harvesting of their sprouts during the four seasons (september/2013 to august/2014). From the mini-stumps sprouts mini-cuttings were produced, wich were were planted in plastic tubes and kept in a greenhouse for 45 days. Six substrates were used for planting the mini-cuttings: commercial substrate (S1); substrate composed of 100% carbonized rice husk (CRH) (S2); substrate composed of 100% coconut fiber (CF) (S3); substrate composed of 50% CF and 50% CRH (S4); substrate composed of 30% CF and 70% CRH (S5); substrate composed of 70% FC and 30% CRH (S6). The high survival of mini-stumps (over 90%) and the mini-cuttings production (282 mini-cuttings.m-2.month-1) in the shade house demonstrate the technical feasibility for the species, being summer the most appropriate time to collect propagules. The substrate composed by 70% CF + 30% CRH (S6) shows superior results for vegetative propagation of M. alternifolia (91.7% of rooted mini-cuttings), as the single one to contemplate simultaneously all parameters. Summer is recommended as the best time for rooting of mini-cuttings.
Keywords: Carbonized rice husk, Coconut fiber, Clonal mini-garden, Essential oil, Medicinal plant
8- EFFECT OF NANOSILICA ON THERMAL, FLAMMABILITY, AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WF/RPS-BASED NANOCOMPOSITES
Majid Kiaei, Hashem Amiri, Ahmad Samariha, Naghme Amani
The present study considered the effect of nanosilica levels on the thermal, flammability, and morphological properties of nanocomposites made of wood flour and recycled polystyrene. To do so, the recycled polystyrene, wood flour, nanosilica, and maleic anhydride, grafted with polypropylene at a constant level of 3%, were mixed by a twin-screw extruder; then standard experimental samples were made using a hand pressing method. Next, the thermal and flammability properties were measured. The results showed that enhancement of nanosilica content to 6% by weight increased thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of nanocomposites and more char amount remained; in addition, the limited oxygen index increased. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that an enhancement of nanosilica increased compatibility so that better link and adherence was observed among the fiber and matrix material.
Keywords: Nanosilica, Limited oxygen index, Thermo gravimetric analysis, Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
9- COMPARISON OF RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY (RSM) AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS (ANN) TOWARDS EFFICIENT OPTIMIZATION OF FLEXURAL PROPERTIES OF GYPSUM-BONDED FIBERBOARDS
Morteza Nazerian, Meysam Kamyabb, Mohammad Shamsianb, Mohammad Dahmardehb, Mojtaba Kooshaa
In this study, the hydration behavior of gypsum paste mixed with bagasse and kenaf fibers as lignocellulosic material and fiberglass as inorganic material is evaluated. Moreover, the properties of gypsum-bonded fiberboard (GBFB) are examined using bagasse fibers (Saccharum officinarum.L), kenaf fibers (Hibiscus cannabinus.L) and industrial fiberglass. The weight ratios of fiberglass (at three levels 0, 3 and 6%), bagasse fiber (at three levels 0, 7.5 and 15%) and kenaf fiber (at three levels 0, 7.5 and 15%) to gypsum are used to make the gypsum-bonded fiberboard with the nominal density 1.10 . After preparing the fiberboard, its flexural properties were examined. Response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to model the bending strength of gypsum-bonded fiberboard. According to the hydration tests, it was determined that as the extractives in the lignocellulosic materials increased, the temperature of the mixture decreased and its setting time increased. According to the bending test results, it was determined that there is an ideal consistency between the predicted values and the observed data, so that as bagasse and kenaf fiber increased, the modulus of rupture (MOR) increased. Maximum MOR of panel was predicted to be 10.81 MPa and 11MPa by RSM and ANN at optimum condition. Based on the statistical analysis, the training and validation data sets of the studied models were compared by the coefficient of determination (R2), root mean squares error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE). ANN model showed a much more accurate prediction than RSM in terms of the values R2, RMSE and MAE.
Keywords: Gypsum-bonded fiberboard, RSM, ANN, Hydration, MOR, Bagasse, Kenaf, Glass fiber
10- INFLUENCE OF Eucalyptus WOOD ADDITION TO URBAN WOOD WASTE DURING COMBUSTION
Ananias Francisco Dias Júnior, Richard Briques Anuto, Carlos Rogério Andrade, Natália Dias de Souza, Saly Takeshita, José Otávio Brito, Adriana Maria Nolasco
This research analyzed the effect of the addition of Eucalyptus sp wood to the wood waste of urban origin (WWU) as a strategy for energy generation. The WWU was collected in transshipment and sorting company of Civil Construction Waste in the city of Piracicaba-SP and the wood of Eucalyptus sp was obtained from a 7-year old plantation. Five treatments with proportions of WWU and Eucalyptus sp wood were analyzed: T1 = 1/0, T2 = 3/1, T3 = 1/1, T4 = 1/3 e T5 = 0/1. The treatments had the physical, chemical, immediate characteristics, mineral contaminants rate, and combustion test (ICOM) analyzed. The data were analyzed through the study of variance, correlations, and multivariate similarity in a Manhattan plot. The higher content extractives, holocellulose, volatile materials, low ash content values, contaminants rate and high performance for combustion test were observed only for the treatment having exclusively Eucalyptus sp wood (T5). However, the addition of wood in the WWU allowed for the increase of the ICOM of these materials. The multivariate analysis of the cluster allowed for the grouping of the treatments observing similarities between the groups of biomass with the obtained dendrogram.
Keywords: Combustion index; Waste utilization; Eucalyptus wood for energy