1- HEIGHT-DIAMETER MODELS FOR Eucalyptus sp. PLANTATIONS IN BRAZIL

Antonio Carlos Ferraz Filho, Blas Mola-Yudego, Andressa Ribeiro, José  Roberto  Soares Scolforo, Rodolfo Araújo Loos, Henrique Ferraço Scolforo

Abstract

The use of height-diameter models have important applications in the management of eucalyptus plantations. The aim of this paper is to provide adequate height models based on the diameter and stand variables that could be easily used and applied to plantation’s management. The data was based on tests located in Espírito Santo and Bahia. A total of 312 plots, including 35 different treatments (different initial planting densities, number of thinning operations, thinnings, fertilization regimes, among others), and four different clones. This resulted in 2,407 conditions for 85,608 tree measurements. The constructed equations were based on mixed-effect models, in order to accommodate possible autocorrelations, to address variations between sites and to obtain locally calibrated estimates. Among the different model structures and combination of variables tested and presented, the best model showed a coefficient of determination of 0.953 and 0.988, for the fixed and fixed+random parts, respectively. The model included a random factor for measurements-within-tree and tree-within-plot. The bias of the fixed part was 0.208 cm (0.0659%). We believe the models in this study can have broad applications in management and inventory methods applied to plantations.

Keywords: Forest inventory, Mixed effect models, Tree height prediction

 

2- POLYESTER COMPOSITES REINFORCED WITH MALEIC ANHYDRIDE-TREATED FILAMENTS FROM MAUVE

Ricardo Gabriel de Almeida Mesquita, Antônia Amanda da Silva César, Lourival Marin Mendes, José Manoel Marconcini, Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the polyester-based fiber composites reinforced with filaments/fibers of mauve treated with NaOH and maleic anhydride. The chemical treatment of the mauve filament/fibers (3 cm) was carried out, first with NaOH, followed by maleic anhydride. The resin used was ortho unsaturated polyester with addition of catalyst peroxide methyl ethyl ketone. The composites were prepared with 15% fiber (w/w) and tested for water absorption properties, three-point bending, tensile and impact strength. Fiberglass composites were made in the same way to compare with mauve composites. The results demonstrate the potential use of mauve fibers. For some properties the mauve composites perform better mechanical properties than fiberglass composites. The treatment of the particles had varied effect, but for the most mechanical properties, the treatment was harming. However, for the water absorption was observed a reduction of 35% in composites with treated mauve fibers.

Keywords: Plant fibers, Lignocellulosic, Resin, Glass fiber

 

3- USE OF RENEWABLE SUBSTRATES FOR EX VITRO PRODUCTION OF Melaleuca Alternifolia CHEEL SEEDLINGS. BY MINICUTTING

Carlos Andre Stuepp, Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso, Pedro Henrique Riboldi Monteiro, Dagma Kratz, Ivar Wendling, Katia Christina Zuffellato-Ribas

Abstract

The Australian species Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel. has a strong commercial importance due to the extraction of essential oils from its leaves used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. In order to obtain an efficient plant production system of M. alternifolia the mini-cuttings technique and the clonal mini-garden management in the productivity and rooting of mini-cuttings and different substrate compositions were analyzed during all the seasons. Mini-stumps derived from cuttings and grown in pots (2 L), were submitted to successive harvesting of their sprouts during the four seasons (september/2013 to august/2014). From the mini-stumps sprouts mini-cuttings were produced, wich were were planted in plastic tubes and kept in a greenhouse for 45 days. Six substrates were used for planting the mini-cuttings: commercial substrate (S1); substrate composed of 100% carbonized rice husk (CRH) (S2); substrate composed of 100% coconut fiber (CF) (S3); substrate composed of 50% CF and 50% CRH (S4); substrate composed of 30% CF and 70% CRH (S5); substrate composed of 70% FC and 30% CRH (S6). The high survival of mini-stumps (over 90%) and the mini-cuttings production (282 mini-cuttings.m-2.month-1) in the shade house demonstrate the technical feasibility for the species, being summer the most appropriate time to collect propagules. The substrate composed by 70% CF + 30% CRH (S6) shows superior results for vegetative propagation of M. alternifolia (91.7% of rooted mini-cuttings), as the single one to contemplate simultaneously all parameters. Summer is recommended as the best time for rooting of mini-cuttings.

Keywords: Carbonized rice husk, Coconut fiber, Clonal mini-garden, Essential oil, Medicinal plant

 

4- PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS AFFECTING DENDROMETRIC PARAMETERS AND EUCALYPTUS WOOD QUALITY FOR PULPING WOOD

Carlos Andre Stuepp, Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso, Pedro Henrique Riboldi Monteiro, Dagma Kratz, Ivar Wendling, Katia Christina Zuffellato-Ribas

Abstract

The Australian species Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel. has a strong commercial importance due to the extraction of essential oils from its leaves used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. In order to obtain an efficient plant production system of M. alternifolia the mini-cuttings technique and the clonal mini-garden management in the productivity and rooting of mini-cuttings and different substrate compositions were analyzed during all the seasons. Mini-stumps derived from cuttings and grown in pots (2 L), were submitted to successive harvesting of their sprouts during the four seasons (september/2013 to august/2014). From the mini-stumps sprouts mini-cuttings were produced, wich were were planted in plastic tubes and kept in a greenhouse for 45 days. Six substrates were used for planting the mini-cuttings: commercial substrate (S1); substrate composed of 100% carbonized rice husk (CRH) (S2); substrate composed of 100% coconut fiber (CF) (S3); substrate composed of 50% CF and 50% CRH (S4); substrate composed of 30% CF and 70% CRH (S5); substrate composed of 70% FC and 30% CRH (S6). The high survival of mini-stumps (over 90%) and the mini-cuttings production (282 mini-cuttings.m-2.month-1) in the shade house demonstrate the technical feasibility for the species, being summer the most appropriate time to collect propagules. The substrate composed by 70% CF + 30% CRH (S6) shows superior results for vegetative propagation of M. alternifolia (91.7% of rooted mini-cuttings), as the single one to contemplate simultaneously all parameters. Summer is recommended as the best time for rooting of mini-cuttings.

Keywords: Carbonized rice husk, Coconut fiber, Clonal mini-garden, Essential oil, Medicinal plant

 

5- SELECTING SUITABLE FOREST AREAS FOR HONEY PRODUCTION USING THE AHP: A CASE STUDY IN TURKEY

Ersin Güngör, Gokhan Sem

Abstract

Honey production forests (HPFs) are crucial forest areas for the preservation and transfer of biodiversity for future generations, provision of sustainable food safety, supporting rural development, and the rehabilitation of barren forests so that society can benefit from them. The purpose of this study is to prepare a model for conducting planning and prioritizing for HPF areas. For this purpose, using a multidimensional decision support model, we determined the most suitable three areas by way of prioritizing potential HPF areas identified. Bartın in Turkey which was chosen as the area of study, in line with the criteria (ecological–environmental, economic, and socio-cultural) set out using the participatory approach. The ranking and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methods were employed. The results of the study indicate that public institutions and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) prioritize ecological–environmental criteria (especially the type of honey) in their identification of HPFs, whereas the locals care more about the economic criteria, especially the potential for honey production, when identifying HPFs. Moreover, the fact that the level of demand is at the top among the economy-based sub-criteria indicates that the demands and expectations of interest groups should definitely be taken into consideration in the functional provision of forest resources. If HPF areas are planned and established by paying attention to the priorities, HPFs would contribute to an increase in added value and social welfare in the local area as well as to employment, rural development, and the sustainable management of forest resources.

Keywords: Food safety, Participation, Rural development,  Sustainable forest management , Decisions making, Turkey

 

6- EFFECT OF NANOSILICA ON THERMAL, FLAMMABILITY, AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WF/RPS-BASED NANOCOMPOSITES

Majid Kiaei, Hashem Amiri, Ahmad Samariha, Naghme Amani

Abstract

The present study considered the effect of nanosilica levels on the thermal, flammability, and morphological properties of nanocomposites made of wood flour and recycled polystyrene. To do so, the recycled polystyrene, wood flour, nanosilica, and maleic anhydride, grafted with polypropylene at a constant level of 3%, were mixed by a twin-screw extruder; then standard experimental samples were made using a hand pressing method. Next, the thermal and flammability properties were measured. The results showed that enhancement of nanosilica content to 6% by weight increased thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of nanocomposites and more char amount remained; in addition, the limited oxygen index increased. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that an enhancement of nanosilica increased compatibility so that better link and adherence was observed among the fiber and matrix material.

Keywords: Nanosilica, Limited oxygen index, Thermo gravimetric analysis, Scanning electron microscope (SEM)

 

7- GENERAL HEIGHT-DIAMETER EQUATION WITH BIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES FOR Pinus taeda l. STANDS

Saulo Jorge Téo, Sebastião do Amaral Machado, Afonso Figueiredo Filho,

Margarida Tomé

Abstract

The aim of this study was to develop an equation with biological attributes and general applicability, to represent the height-diameter relationship for Pinus taeda L. stands, with and without thinning, in the Middle West region of Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The data came from 652 permanent plots, with 428 to 740 m2, located in forest stands with ages ranging from 4.6 to 35.2 years, in which the total heights of about 20% of the trees were measured, in addition to the dominant trees. The functions developed by Harrison, Michailoff, Prodan and Stoffels & Van Soest were fitted with their parameters linear function of stand variables, based on the Gauss-Newton algorithm. In general, the Harrison model, fitted with the parameter linear function of age (t), site index (S), coefficient of variation of the tree diameters in the plot (CV d ) and basal area of the plot (G), showed the best statistical performance to represent the height-diameter relationship, biological consistency and general applicability for stands of Pinus taeda.

Keywords: Height-diameter relationship, h-d model, Biological consistency, Stand variables

 

8- THE DYNAMICS OF THE SUBSTRATE RECOVERY OF WASTE DUMPS IN CALCARY MINING UNDER NATURAL REGENERATION

Marcelle Teodoro Lima, Admilson Írio Ribeiro, Herly Carlos Teixeira Dias, Alexandra Guidelli Rosa, Gustavo Trevizan Pires, Kelly Cristina Tonello

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the dynamics of the physical and chemical recovery of the substrates of waste dumps of different ages undergoing natural regeneration, in a calcary mining in Salto de Pirapora - SP, Brazil. Characterization of the vegetation, vegetation and physical and chemical cover of the substrates of the abandoned waste dumps since 1994 and 2013 and the soil of a native forest fragment adjacent to the mining was carried out. Twelve plots of 10x10m were allocated in each environment. It was verified that the soil cover rate with herbaceous, grassy, regenerating and litter of the sterile stacks are similar to the native forest fragment. The same was observed for the physical characterization of soil resistance to penetration, soil moisture content and relative light index. For the chemical characteristics, in all areas sampled there is aluminum deficiency which, consequently, presented low potential acidity and alkaline pH. The CEC of the substrates of the waste dumps presented values similar to the CEC of the native forest fragment, with abundance in some essential nutrients, indicating the possibility of vegetation development in the sterile stacks and the contribution of the natural regeneration to the substrates. Thus, the plant-soil relationship via natural regeneration in the sterile piles contributed to the improvement of the edaphic quality of the substrates over time, being a potential form of recovery in calcary mining. Thereby, the Fabaceae predominated on the waste dumps, especially Leucaena leucocephala, which, despite being an exotic species, is relevant for the current recovery stage of the substrates.

Keywords: Physical properties of soil, Leucaena leucocephala, Degraded areas

 

9- ANALYSIS OF THE PHENOLOGY DYNAMICS OF BRAZILIAN CAATINGA SPECIES WITH NDVI TIME SERIES

Claudionor Ribeiro da Silva, Sérgio Luís Dias Machado, Aracy Alves de Araújo,  Carlos Alberto Matias de Abreu Junior

Abstract

In Brazil there are six well-defined biomes and the Caatinga represents 9.92% of the total area. This biome is exclusively Brazilian and very rich in biodiversity. Because it has low resistance to human interference is necessary to know the important factors in monitoring the biome. Vegetation coverage and climate are two of these factors, as they indicate the intensity of human activity and the wear caused with time. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been recently explored in the description of tree phenology. In this study we sought to associate NDVI/Landsat values to a climatic variable (phenomena El-Nino and La-Nina - NINONINA) in order to describe the phenological behavior of the Caatinga in the Parque Nacional da Serra das Capivaras in the state of Piauí/Brazil. A time series analysis was carried out, describing the intrinsic parameters of the series (Seasonality and Trends), the forecast of NDVI values using SARIMA model and co-integration between NDVI and NINONINA series. The results showed that the NDVI series presents seasonally, but does not exhibit a trend. The forecasting process presenting relatively low error at a 95% confidence interval. Finally, it was observed that the NDVI series is co-integrated with the NINONINA series.

Keywords: El-Nino, La-Nina, Forecast, Co-integration, SARIMA

 

10- ECOLOGIC FEATURES OF WOOD ANATOMY OF Casearia sylvestris SW (SALICACEAE) IN THREE BRAZILIAN ECOSYSTEMS

Graciene da Silva Mota, Luiz Eduardo de Lima Melo, Alessandra de Oliveira Ribeiro, Anderson Oliveira Selvati, Helena Pereira, Fabio Akira Mori

Abstract

Casearia sylvestris SW (Salicaceae) is a highly adaptive perennial species that is found throughout Latin America and widely spread in Brazil. This work analyzed the ecological features of wood anatomy of C. sylvestris occurring in three ecosystem types: Cerrado, Gallery Forest (Northern of Minas Gerais) and Mata Atlântica (Southern of Minas Gerais). Qualitative features were similar among plants in the three ecosystems, differing only in the distribution of pith flecks and neighboring tyloses that were more frequent in Cerrado and Gallery Forest. The quantitative results showed significant differences for several parameters, as well as variation between individuals of vegetation types of Northern and Southern of Minas Gerais. The correlation matrix of variables including quantitative anatomical characteristics, soil characteristics, height and diameter of the plants showed that plants were grouped by ecosystem type. Casearia sylvestris might adopt different survival strategies regarding safety and efficiency of water transport by wood anatomy ecological adaptation. The adaptive anatomical features to drought were mostly an decrease of vessel frequency and an increase of ray width and frequency.

Keywords: Comparative wood anatomy; Guaçatonga; Casearia sylvestris; Mata Atlântica; Cerrado