1- USE OF RENEWABLE SUBSTRATES FOR EX VITRO PRODUCTION OF Melaleuca Alternifolia CHEEL SEEDLINGS. BY MINICUTTING
Carlos Andre Stuepp, Rosimeri de Oliveira Fragoso, Pedro Henrique Riboldi Monteiro, Dagma Kratz, Ivar Wendling, Katia Christina Zuffellato-Ribas
The Australian species Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel. has a strong commercial importance due to the extraction of essential oils from its leaves used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. In order to obtain an efficient plant production system of M. alternifolia the mini-cuttings technique and the clonal mini-garden management in the productivity and rooting of mini-cuttings and different substrate compositions were analyzed during all the seasons. Mini-stumps derived from cuttings and grown in pots (2 L), were submitted to successive harvesting of their sprouts during the four seasons (september/2013 to august/2014). From the mini-stumps sprouts mini-cuttings were produced, wich were were planted in plastic tubes and kept in a greenhouse for 45 days. Six substrates were used for planting the mini-cuttings: commercial substrate (S1); substrate composed of 100% carbonized rice husk (CRH) (S2); substrate composed of 100% coconut fiber (CF) (S3); substrate composed of 50% CF and 50% CRH (S4); substrate composed of 30% CF and 70% CRH (S5); substrate composed of 70% FC and 30% CRH (S6). The high survival of mini-stumps (over 90%) and the mini-cuttings production (282 mini-cuttings.m-2.month-1) in the shade house demonstrate the technical feasibility for the species, being summer the most appropriate time to collect propagules. The substrate composed by 70% CF + 30% CRH (S6) shows superior results for vegetative propagation of M. alternifolia (91.7% of rooted mini-cuttings), as the single one to contemplate simultaneously all parameters. Summer is recommended as the best time for rooting of mini-cuttings.
Keywords: Carbonized rice husk; Coconut fiber; Clonal mini-garden; Essential oil; Medicinal plant
2- GENERAL HEIGHT-DIAMETER EQUATION WITH BIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES FOR Pinus taeda l. STANDS
Saulo Jorge Téo, Sebastião do Amaral Machado, Afonso Figueiredo Filho, Margarida Tomé
The aim of this study was to develop an equation with biological attributes and general applicability, to represent the height-diameter relationship for Pinus taeda L. stands, with and without thinning, in the Middle West region of Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The data came from 652 permanent plots, with 428 to 740 m2, located in forest stands with ages ranging from 4.6 to 35.2 years, in which the total heights of about 20% of the trees were measured, in addition to the dominant trees. The functions developed by Harrison, Michailoff, Prodan and Stoffels & Van Soest were fitted with their parameters linear function of stand variables, based on the Gauss-Newton algorithm. In general, the Harrison model, fitted with the parameter linear function of age (t), site index (S), coefficient of variation of the tree diameters in the plot (CV d ) and basal area of the plot (G), showed the best statistical performance to represent the height-diameter relationship, biological consistency and general applicability for stands of Pinus taeda.
Keywords: Height-diameter relationship; h-d model; Biological consistency; Stand variables
3- STRENGTH IMPROVEMENT OF HYDROXYPROPYL METHYLCELLULOSE/ STARCH FILMS USING CELLULOSE NANOCRYSTALS
Ney Robson Taironi do Prado, Joabel Raabe, Seyedmohammad Mirmehdi, Lisiane Nunes Hugen, Lidiane Costa Lima, Alcinéia de Lemos Souza Ramos, Mário Guimarães Junior, Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli
Interest in cellulose nanocrystals obtained from natural resources has grown mainly because of features that such materials provide when inserted into polymeric matrices. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of cellulose nanocrystals addition on mechanical properties of biofilms made from hypromellose (or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose - HPMC) and cassava starch blends (CS). The cellulose nanocrystals were produced by acid hydrolysis and characterized by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TG). Films were made with pure CS, pure hypromellose and also with blends of CS and hypromellose by casting. Then cellulose nanocrystals were added to the blends in the concentrations of 1, 3 and 10% (m/m). Evaluations of the films included tensile performance and fracture surface by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was observed that the reinforcement with nanocrystals improved the mechanical properties of the films, and their fracture surface showed that cellulose nanocrystals promoted an improvement in the cohesion of the hypromellose and starch molecules in the blend, and created a more homogeneous surface.
Keywords: Biofilm; Hypromellose; Casting; Cassava starch
4-ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR ESTIMATING VOLUME OF TREES IN CERRADO
Talles Hudson Souza Lacerda, Christian Dias Cabacinha, Carlos Alberto Araújo Júnior, Renato Dourado Maia, Klaus Wesley de Souza Lacerda
This paper seeks to estimate tree volumes of different species from the Brazilian savanna by using artificial neural networks and by making comparisons of results with estimates obtained from traditional volumetric equations. Data was obtained from 15 squared samples of 400 m² in an area of 29.6 ha. In each plot, breast height diameter (D) (diameter at 1.30 m from soil), total height (Ht) and commercial height (Hc) of all individuals with D equals or higher than 3.0 cm were measured. Afterwards, each tree was felled for volume measurement. Huber method was used considering measurement of stem diameters with more than 3.0 cm. Obtained data was used to train artificial neural networks (ANN) and to adjust volumetric equations to estimate total and commercial volume of trees. This study has shown that ANN and regression models are efficient for obtaining estimated volumes of trees in the Brazilian savanna. This suggests that artificial neural networks, that take into consideration species as a categorical input variable and were data trained, presented better results than those that are trained without categorical input.
Keywords: ANN; Artificial intelligence; Dendrometry
5-INFLUENCE OF Eucalyptus WOOD ADDITION TO URBAN WOOD WASTE DURING COMBUSTION
Ananias Francisco Dias júnior, Richard Briques Anuto, Carlos Rogério Andrade, Natália Dias de Souza, Saly Takeshita, José Otávio Brito, Adriana Maria Nolasco
This research analyzed the effect of the addition of E. grandis x E. urophylla wood to the wood waste of urban origin (WWU) as a strategy for energy generation. The WWU was collected in transshipment and from a sorting company of civil construction waste in the city of Piracicaba, SP. The wood of eucalyptus was obtained from a 7-year old plantation. Five treatments with proportions (%) of WWU and eucalyptus wood were analyzed: T1 = 100/0, T2 = 75/25, T3 = 50/50, T4 = 25/75 and T5 = 0/100. The treatments had the physical, chemical, immediate characteristics, mineral contaminants rate, and combustion test (ICOM) analyzed. The data were analyzed through the study of variance, correlations, and multivariate hierarchical clusters analysis (HCA). The higher content of extractives, holocellulose, volatile materials, low ash content values, rate of mineral contaminants and high performance for combustion test were observed only for the treatment having exclusively eucalyptus wood (T5). However, the addition of eucalyptus wood in the WWU allowed for the increase of the ICOM of these materials. In this way, the T3 treatment presents as the most recommended for energetic use.
Keywords: Combustion index; Waste utilization; Eucalyptus wood for energy
6-ROOTSTOCK AGE AND GROWTH HABIT INFLUENCE TOP GRAFTING IN Araucaria angustifolia
Rozimeiry Gomes Bezerra Gaspar, Ivar Wendling, Carlos Andre Stuepp, Alessandro Camargo Angelo
The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical viability and influence of the rootstock age and grafts growth habit on Araucaria angustifolia top grafting. Two rootstocks (8 and 35-year-old) were grafted with grafts originating from two growth habits (orthotropic and plagiotropic). We used the patch grafting technique in the middle and upper third of the crown of 8-year-old trees, and in the middle and lower third of 35-year-old trees, always near the apex in primary branches. The experiments were performed during the fall and spring/2015. The treatments consisted of: 8-year-old rootstocks and orthotropic grafts; 8-year-old rootstocks and plagiotropic grafts; 35-year-old rootstocks and plagiotropic grafts; 35-year-old rootstocks and orthotropic grafts. We evaluated graft survival throughout the experiment and at 16 months, we evaluated their survival, emission, and number and average length of sprouts. Top grafting is technically feasible for araucaria, with better results using younger rootstocks (8-year-old), especially with plagiotropic propagules and grafting in fall/2015 (71.9%). Growth habits of the grafts are maintained identically as original, independently of rootstock growth habit.
Keywords: Brazilian pine; Clonal forestry; Grafting; Growing habits
7-PHENOLOGICAL STRATEGIES OF DIOECIOUS SPECIES IN RESPONSE TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL VARIATIONS OF RUPESTRIAN GRASSLANDS
Darliana Costa Fonseca, Márcio Leles Romarco Oliveira, Israel Marinho Pereira, Cássia Michelle Cabral, Cristiane Coelho Moura, Evandro Luiz Mendonça Machado
Rupestrian grasslands present great diversity of phenological patterns in response to the high biodiversity of this ecosystem and its environmental variation. Dioecious species show distinction between the genders in relation to the nutritional requirements for growth and reproduction, comprehending determining factors, especially in restrictive environments. The purpose of the study was to comprehend the reproductive and vegetative phenology of the dioecious species Baccharis playtypoda, joining the phenological strategies with the sexual system and the environment seasonal variations. The study was performed in three areas of rupestrian grassland, where the phenology of thirty plants from September/2010 through September/2011 was observed. The Fournier intensity method, Spearman’s correlation and circular analysis were used. The reproductive phenophases began in February and ended between September and October, while the vegetative phenophases presented intensity variation during that period. The vegetative phenophases of both genders has shown low seasonal standard, while the reproductive phenophases has presented strong seasonality. The species B. platypoda has presented little variations in the phenological strategies of male and female individuals, mainly during the reproductive phenophases and in the vegetative growth for the allocation of resources. The species’ reproductive phenology had been associated to some environmental variables, mainly for the fructification phenophases, while the vegetative phenology, in general, had been most associated to the reproductive phenology of the species.
Keywords: Baccharis platypoda, Asteracea, Reproductive phenology, Vegetative phenology, Dioecious, Seasonality
8-VEGETATIVE RESCUE AND ROOTING OF CUTTINGS OF DIFFERENT STOCK PLANTS OF Sequoia
Mariane de Oliveira Pereira, Alessandro Camargo Ângelo, Marcio Carlos Navroski, Mario Dobner Júnior, Luciana Magda de Oliveira
Sequoia is a fast-growing, long-living species, producing durable timber. The aim of this study was to test different methods for the vegetative rescue of Sequoia sempervirens trees over 40 years old, made at different periods of the year, and, later, testing the rooting of individualized cuttings in planned arrays. Twenty-four individual sequoias were rescued, applying girdling and semi-girdling at three different heights (-10, 0, and 30 cm). The first collection was made 90 days after application of the treatments, being repeated at 150, 240, and 360 days. The percentage of budding trees and the number of shoots per array were registered. In all collections, shoots produced cuttings, which were placed for rooting in mini-tunnels. Cutting survival (%), rooting (%), and number of roots were registered, per array, and per collection. The species vegetative rescue proved to be efficient for the production of shoots for stem cuttings, especially with girdling at 30 cm and semi-girdling at -10 cm. However, it is difficult to define the best method, mainly because of the genetic effect among stock plants. The rooting of cuttings, of recovered material, presented good results (average >65%), also with great differences among stock plants. The potential for rooting of cuttings varied according to different planting periods, with high rooting rates in all seasons, especially in summer. Sequoia sempervirens shows the potential for vegetative rescue and cloning by rooting of cuttings, and this may lead to new studies, with a view towards fixing clones.
Keywords: Girdling; Semi-girdling; Rooting periods; Clonal forestry; Redwood
9-IMPORTANCE OF WOOD DRYING TO THE FOREST TRANSPORT AND PULP MILL SUPPLY
Antonio Jose Vinha Zanuncio, Amelia Guimaraes Carvalho, Marcela Gomes da Silva, José Tarcisio Lima
The forest transportation represents a great proportion of raw material cost for pulp and paper production and, for this reason, the wood moisture content should be low to reduce these cost. The objective was to relate the wood moisture with fuel consumption per kilometer in each vehicle and the number of trips to supply a pulp mill. Three trees of Eucalyptus urophylla clone and three of Corymbia citriodora from seeds were used. These trees were felled and their logs removed from its base and at 50 and 100% of the commercial height. The basic density and initial moisture of wood were determined and the air drying monitored during 90 days. The fuel consumption to transport one ton of dry wood and the number of trips required to supply a pulp mill were estimated based on the number of air drying days. Air drying reduced the fuel consumption and the number of trips to supply the pulp mill. The accuracy of models to estimate the wood moisture, fuel consumption and the number of trips based in days of drying was high. Therefore, wood drying is an essential tool to reduce forest transport costs.
Keywords: Cellulosic pulp; Corymbia; Eucalyptus; Logs; Moisture
10-ECOLOGIC FEATURES OF WOOD ANATOMY OF Casearia sylvestris SW (SALICACEAE) IN THREE BRAZILIAN ECOSYSTEMS
Graciene da Silva Mota, Luiz Eduardo de Lima Melo, Alessandra de Oliveira Ribeiro, Anderson Oliveira Selvati, Helena Pereira, Fabio Akira Mori
Casearia sylvestris SW (Salicaceae) is a highly adaptive perennial species that is found throughout Latin America and widely spread in Brazil. This work analyzed the ecological features of wood anatomy of C. sylvestris occurring in three ecosystem types: Cerrado, Gallery Forest (Northern of Minas Gerais) and Mata Atlântica (Southern of Minas Gerais). Qualitative features were similar among plants in the three ecosystems, differing only in the distribution of pith flecks and neighboring tyloses that were more frequent in Cerrado and Gallery Forest. The quantitative results showed significant differences for several parameters, as well as variation between individuals of vegetation types of Northern and Southern of Minas Gerais. The correlation matrix of variables including quantitative anatomical characteristics, soil characteristics, height and diameter of the plants showed that plants were grouped by ecosystem type. Casearia sylvestris might adopt different survival strategies regarding safety and efficiency of water transport by wood anatomy ecological adaptation. The adaptive anatomical features to drought were mostly an decrease of vessel frequency and an increase of ray width and frequency.
Keywords: Comparative wood anatomy; Guaçatonga; Casearia sylvestris; Mata Atlântica; Cerrado