1- IMPORTANCE OF WOOD DRYING TO THE FOREST TRANSPORT AND PULP MILL SUPPLY
Antonio Jose Vinha Zanuncio, Amelia Guimaraes Carvalho, Marcela Gomes da Silva, José Tarcisio Lima
The forest transportation represents a great proportion of raw material cost for pulp and paper production and, for this reason, the wood moisture content should be low to reduce these cost. The objective was to relate the wood moisture with fuel consumption per kilometer in each vehicle and the number of trips to supply a pulp mill. Three trees of Eucalyptus urophylla clone and three of Corymbia citriodora from seeds were used. These trees were felled and their logs removed from its base and at 50 and 100% of the commercial height. The basic density and initial moisture of wood were determined and the air drying monitored during 90 days. The fuel consumption to transport one ton of dry wood and the number of trips required to supply a pulp mill were estimated based on the number of air drying days. Air drying reduced the fuel consumption and the number of trips to supply the pulp mill. The accuracy of models to estimate the wood moisture, fuel consumption and the number of trips based in days of drying was high. Therefore, wood drying is an essential tool to reduce forest transport costs.
Keywords: Cellulosic pulp, Corymbia, Eucalyptus, Logs, Moisture
2- AGROFORESTRY AS A SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REGULARIZATION OF RURAL CONSOLIDATED OCCUPATIONS
Sarita Soraia de Alcântara Laudares, Luís Antônio Coimbra Borges, Patrícia Andressa de Ávila, Athila Leandro de Oliveira, Kmila Gomes da Silva, Dagmar Cristina de Alcântara Laudares
The great expectation about the New Forest Code consisted in reducing the hermeneutics distortions and increasing legal certainty for farmers. However, the new legislation raised more uncertainties and discussions, mainly because it consolidates the anthropic use and allows of low-impact activities in areas that should, by law, be kept untouched. This study aimed to survey and to describe the legislation related to protected areas on the rural area (APP and RL), to analyze the consolidated forms of use, occupation and low impact activities that can be developed in these areas, and to propose sustainable technical alternatives for interventions in the areas already consolidated and their recovery. The text is based on literature and documents, elaborated on the survey and study of legal aspects about protected areas in rural properties of Brazil and the main low-impact farming techniques, highlighting the agroforestry systems as an alternative of consolidated occupations in environmental protection areas. The text provides in an organized way the main aspects of the legislation on such areas and describes the sustainable activities allowed in APP and RL according to the flexibility of the new Forest Code.
Keywords: Brazilian Forest Code; Small farmer; Agroforest
3- MODELING ECOLOGICAL NICHE OF TREE SPECIES IN BRAZILIAN TROPICAL AREA
Mônica Canaan Carvalho, Lucas Rezende Gomide, Rubens Manoel dos Santos, José Roberto Soares Scolforo, Luís Marcelo Tavares de Carvalho, José Márcio de Mello
Modeling of the ecological niche of vegetal species is useful for understanding the species-environment relationship, for prediction of responses to climate changes and for correct reforestation programs and establishment of plantation’s recommendation. The objective of this work was to establish a model for the distribution of four tree species (Casearia sylvestris, Copaifera langsdorffii, Croton floribundus and Tapirira guianensis), widely used in reforestation projects in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between environmental characteristics and the occurrence of species and tested the performance of Random Forest and Artificial Neural Networks as modeling methods. These methods were evaluated by their overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Kappa, true skill statistic and the area under the receiver operating curve. The results showed the species Casearia sylvestris, Copaifera langsdorffii and Tapirira guianensis widely occurring in the state of Minas Gerais, including a broad range of environmental variables. Croton floribundus had restricted occurrence in the southern state, showing narrow environmental variation. The resulting algorithms demonstrated greater performance when modeling restricted geographic and environmental species, as well as species occurring with high prevalence in data. The algorithm Random Forest performed better for distribution modeling of all species, although the results varied for each metric and species. The maps generated had acceptable metrics and are supported by and ecological information obtained from other sources, constituting a useful tool to understand the ecology and biogeography of the target species.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks; Phytogeography; Random Forest
4-ORGANIC MATTER IN AREAS UNDER SECONDARY FORESTS AND PASTURE
Carlos Eduardo Gabriel Menezes, Roni Fernandes Guareschi, Marcos Gervasio Pereira, Lúcia Helena Cunha Anjos, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes Correia, Fabiano Carvalho Balieiro, Marisa de Cássia Piccolo
The objective of this work was to evaluate the soil carbon density and stock (EstC), the chemical and granulometric fractions of the organic matter and the isotopic signal of the soil δ13C in forest fragments and a mixed pasture area (MMP). The study was carried out in the municipality of Pinheiral, State of Rio de Janeiro. The evaluated areas were: fragment of secondary forest in initial stage (SFIS) with 20 years of regeneration; Fragment of secondary forest in intermediate stage (SFINS), with 25 years of regeneration; Advanced secondary forest fragment (SFAS) with 60 years of regeneration and mixed pasture (MMP). The attributes related to soil carbon showed significant responses to the effects of land degradation / recovery processes, especially for the following indicators: total organic carbon, organic matter stock and particulate organic matter. No significant alterations for humic substances, and prevalence of the humin fraction was found. The most significant changes in d13C values occurred up to the depth of 60 cm. In the grassland area, at 0-10 cm, 67% of the carbon stock comes from C4 plants, reducing in the subsequent layers. In SFINS and SFAS areas, at 0-10 cm, the contribution of C3 plants was significant, with minor changes in depth.
Keywords: Organic carbon; Soil carbon fractions; Isotopic composition; Atlantic forest
5-EFFECT OF EXTRACTIVES AND CARBONIZATION TEMPERATURE ON ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF WOOD WASTE IN AMAZON RAINFOREST
Jordão Cabral Moulin, João Rodrigo Coimbra Nobre, Jonnys Paz Castro, Paulo Fernando Trugilho, Marina Donária Chaves Arantes
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extractives soluble in hot water, besides final carbonization temperatures, on the gravimetric yield and properties of charcoal for waste of three native forest species from the Amazon region. Waste cuttings of Ipé, Grapia and Maçaranduba species, from the machine processing for joinery of a company in the State of Pará, were used. Carbonization was carried out in an adapted electric furnace with a heating rate of 1.67°C min-1 and final temperatures of 500, 600 and 700°C. The waste was carbonized fresh after extraction in hot water to remove extractives. Gravimetric yields were analyzed, as well as chemical features and high heating value. In the evaluation of the experiment, arranged in a factorial scheme with three factors (species x temperature x material with and without extraction), and Principal Component Analysis used too. The presence of extractives (soluble in hot water) from wood waste had little influence on the gravimetric yield and immediate chemical composition of charcoal; however, it showed a greater high heating value and lower contents of hydrogen and nitrogen. The increase in the final carbonization temperature reduced the gravimetric yield in charcoal, the content of volatile materials and hydrogen, with a higher content of fixed carbon, carbon and high heating value. The treatments with the best energy characteristics were obtained from Ipé and Maçaranduba charcoals with extractives produced at 600°C, in addition to Ipê and Maçaranduba charcoals with and without extractives obtained at 700°C.
Keywords: Biomass; PCA; Thermal decomposition; Energy
6-SITE CLASSIFICATION FOR EUCALYPT STANDS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL AND MANAGEMENT FEATURES
Diogo Nepomuceno Cosenza, Alvaro Augusto Vieira Soares, Aline Edwiges Mazon de Alcântara, Antonilmar Araujo Lopes da Silva, Rafael Rode, Vicente Paulo Soares, Helio Garcia Leite
Several methods have been proposed to perform site classification for timber production. Frequently, however, there is need to assess site productive capacity before the forest establishment. This has motivated the application of the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for site classification. Hereby, the traditional guide curve (GC) procedure was compared to the ANN with no stand feature as input. In addition, different ANN settings were tested to assess the best setting for site classification. The variables used to train the ANN’s were: climatic variables, soil types, spacing and genetic material. The results from the ANN and the GC methods were compared to the observed classes the Kappa coefficient (K) and descriptive analysis. The results showed that the cost function “Cross Entropy” and the output activation function “Softmax” were the best for this purpose. The ANN classification resulted in substantial agreement with the observed indices against a moderate agreement of the GC procedure. The change in growth patterns throughout the rotation may have hindered the proper classification by the CG method, which does not happen with the ANN. However, in the cases in which data from stands at the age close to the reference age are available, the GC method should be prioritized instead of ANN using no stand feature.
Keywords: Tree plantation, Productive capacity, Artificial intelligence, Site index
7-QUALITY OF REACTION WOOD IN EUCALYPTUS TREES TILTED BY WIND FOR PULP PRODUCTION
Walter Torezani Neto Boschetti, Juarez Benigno Paes, Graziela Baptista Vidaurre, Marina Donária Chaves Arantes, João Gabriel Missia da Silva
This study aims to evaluate the quality of normal, tension and opposite wood of eucalyptus trees lengthwise, in straight and inclined stems, affected by the action of winds, as well as to explain the pulping parameters due to the quality of the wood. The trees were grouped into four tilt ranges ranging from 0 to 50º, and the basic density, the chemical composition of wood, and the performance in the kraft pulping were assessed. Normal and tension wood had similar basic densities; as for the opposite wood, its density was lower, being responsible for the decrease of the reaction wood density. The chemical composition of the wood was influenced by the presence of reaction wood in the stem; tension and opposite wood showed lower levels of extractives and lignin and higher holocellulose content when compared to normal wood, with favorable wood quality for pulping. The increase in holocellulose content and the reduction of lignin and extractives content contributed positively to a more delignified pulp and reduction of the Kappa number. However, after cooking the reaction wood under the same conditions as those of normal wood, reaction wood pulping tends to have a lower purified yield.
Keywords: Tension Wood, Opposite Wood, Cellulose Pulp
8-CLASSIFICATION OF THE INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF EUCALIPTUS USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES
Elizeu de Souza Lima, Zigomar Menezes de Souza, Rafael Montanari, Stanley Robson de Medeiros Oliveira, Lenon Henrique Lovera, Camila Viana Vieira Farhate
Eucalyptus plantation has expanded considerably in Brazil, especially in regions where soils have low fertility, such as in Brazilian Cerrados. To achieve greater productivity, it is essential to know the needs of the soil and the right moment to correct it. Mathematical and computational models have been used as a promising alternative to help in this decision-making process. The aim of this study was to model the influence of climate and physico-chemical attributes in the development of Eucalyptus urograndis in Entisol quartzipsamment soil using the decision tree induction technique. To do so, we used 30 attributes, 29 of them are predictive and one is the target-attribute or response variable regarding the height of the eucalyptus. We defined four approaches to select these features: no selection, Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS), Chi-square test (χ2) and Wrapper. To classify the data, we used the decision tree induction technique available in the Weka software 3.6. This data mining technique allowed us to create a classification model for the initial development of eucalyptus. From this model, one can predict new cases in different production classes, in which the individual wood volume (IWV) and the diameter at breast height (DBH) are crucial features to predict the growth of Eucalyptus urograndis, in addition to the presence of chemical soil components such as: magnesium (Mg+2), phosphorus (P), aluminum (Al+3), potassium (K+), potential acidity (H + Al), hydrogen potential (pH), and physical attributes such as soil resistance to penetration and related to climate, such as minimum temperature.
Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis, Individual wood volume, Feature selection, Entisol quartzipsamment soil, Decision tree
9-COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS AND CHARCOAL MADE FROM BABASSU NUTSHELL
Thiago de Paula Protásio, Mario Guimarães Junior, Seyedmohammad Mirmehdi, Paulo Fernando Trugilho, Alfredo Napoli, Kátia Monteiro Knovack
In recent years, studies have examined the use of lignocellulosic wastes for energy generation. However, there is a lack of information on the combustibility of the residual biomass, especially the bark and charcoal of babassu nut. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to achieve the following objectives: to evaluate the combustion of the residual biomass from the babassu nut; to evaluate the combustion of charcoal produced from this biomass, considering different final carbonization temperatures; and to determine the effect of the final carbonization temperature on the thermal stability of charcoal and on its performance in combustion. Thermal analyses were performed in synthetic air. In order to evaluate the characteristics of charcoal combustion and fresh biomass, the ignition temperature (Ti), the burnout temperature (Tf), characteristic combustion index (S), ignition index (Di), time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate (tp), and ignition time (tig) were considered. The combustion of the babassu nutshell occurred in three phases and it was observed that this lignocellulosic material is suitable for the direct generation of heat. The increase in the final carbonization temperature caused an increase in the ignition temperature, as well as in the burnout temperature, the ignition time and the time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate. The results indicate that the increase in the carbonization temperature causes a decrease in combustion reactivity and, consequently, the charcoals produced at lower temperatures are easier to ignite and exhibit better performance in ignition.
Keywords: Alternative biomass, Renewable energy, Thermal analysis, Ignition
10-VOLUME AND TAPER EQUATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL STEMS OF NOTHOFAGUS OBLIQUA AND N. ALPINA
Hernan Attis Beltran, Luis Chauchard, Ariana Iaconis, Guillermo Martinez Pastur
Stand timber volume in standing trees is essential information when making management decisions. The increasing need to optimize the potential capacity from forests, ensuring their conservation requires the quantification of the different possible wood products. The aim of this research was to adjust taper models to determine volumes of different timber products of Nothofagus alpina and N. obliqua. Trees of N. alpina and N. obliqua were randomly selected in harvesting areas and outside them in the study area (National Reserve of Lanin National Park, Argentina). Trees were felled and cut into long tradable, and the following variables were measured in each one: diameter at breast height, total height, diameter with bark, and for each section, the height from the ground. Five models to describe the stem were chosen and nonlinear regression process was made for adjustments. We obtained the volume model through the integration of the stem profile function and the rotation in the space thereof, through solid of revolution. Bennet and Swindel model was chosen to estimate the stem profile of N. alpina and N. obliqua, where similar parameters between the two species were observed, but given the differences produced at the top of the stem of larger trees is not recommended the use of a common model. With this is possible to estimate volume at different heights and for different commercial diameters. Finally, a model to predict the height at which a N. alpina or N. obliqua tree reaches a certain diameter was obtained.
Keywords: Timber volume, Integration, Revolution solid, Decurrent