Top 10 - AUGUST

2017-09-14

1- IMPORTANCE OF WOOD DRYING TO THE FOREST TRANSPORT AND PULP MILL SUPPLY

Antonio Jose Vinha Zanuncio, Amelia Guimaraes Carvalho, Marcela Gomes da Silva, José Tarcisio Lima

Abstract

The forest transportation represents a great proportion of raw material cost for pulp and paper production and, for this reason, the wood moisture content should be low to reduce these cost. The objective was to relate the wood moisture with fuel consumption per kilometer in each vehicle and the number of trips to supply a pulp mill. Three trees of Eucalyptus urophylla clone and three of Corymbia citriodora from seeds were used. These trees were felled and their logs removed from its base and at 50 and 100% of the commercial height. The basic density and initial moisture of wood were determined and the air drying monitored during 90 days. The fuel consumption to transport one ton of dry wood and the number of trips required to supply a pulp mill were estimated based on the number of air drying days. Air drying reduced the fuel consumption and the number of trips to supply the pulp mill. The accuracy of models to estimate the wood moisture, fuel consumption and the number of trips based in days of drying was high. Therefore, wood drying is an essential tool to reduce forest transport costs.

Keywords: Cellulosic pulp, Corymbia, Eucalyptus, Logs, Moisture

 

2- AGROFORESTRY AS A SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REGULARIZATION OF RURAL CONSOLIDATED OCCUPATIONS

Sarita Soraia de Alcântara Laudares, Luís Antônio Coimbra Borges, Patrícia Andressa de Ávila, Athila Leandro de Oliveira, Kmila Gomes da Silva, Dagmar Cristina de Alcântara Laudares

Abstract

The great expectation about the New Forest Code consisted in reducing the hermeneutics distortions and increasing legal certainty for farmers. However, the new legislation raised more uncertainties and discussions, mainly because it consolidates the anthropic use and allows of low-impact activities in areas that should, by law, be kept untouched. This study aimed to survey and to describe the legislation related to protected areas on the rural area (APP and RL), to analyze the consolidated forms of use, occupation and low impact activities that can be developed in these areas, and to propose sustainable technical alternatives for interventions in the areas already consolidated and their recovery. The text is based on literature and documents, elaborated on the survey and study of legal aspects about protected areas in rural properties of Brazil and the main low-impact farming techniques, highlighting the agroforestry systems as an alternative of consolidated occupations in environmental protection areas. The text provides in an organized way the main aspects of the legislation on such areas and describes the sustainable activities allowed in APP and RL according to the flexibility of the new Forest Code.

Keywords: Brazilian Forest Code, Small farmer, Agroforest

 

3- CLASSIFICATION OF THE INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF EUCALIPTUS USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES

Elizeu de Souza Lima, Zigomar Menezes de Souza, Rafael Montanari, Stanley Robson de Medeiros Oliveira, Lenon Henrique Lovera, Camila Viana Vieira Farhate

Abstract

Eucalyptus plantation has expanded considerably in Brazil, especially in regions where soils have low fertility, such as in Brazilian Cerrados. To achieve greater productivity, it is essential to know the needs of the soil and the right moment to correct it. Mathematical and computational models have been used as a promising alternative to help in this decision-making process. The aim of this study was to model the influence of climate and physico-chemical attributes in the development of Eucalyptus urograndis in Entisol quartzipsamment soil using the decision tree induction technique. To do so, we used 30 attributes, 29 of them are predictive and one is the target-attribute or response variable regarding the height of the eucalyptus. We defined four approaches to select these features: no selection, Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS), Chi-square test (χ2) and Wrapper. To classify the data, we used the decision tree induction technique available in the Weka software 3.6. This data mining technique allowed us to create a classification model for the initial development of eucalyptus. From this model, one can predict new cases in different production classes, in which the individual wood volume (IWV) and the diameter at breast height (DBH) are crucial features to predict the growth of Eucalyptus urograndis, in addition to the presence of chemical soil components such as: magnesium (Mg+2), phosphorus (P), aluminum (Al+3), potassium (K+), potential acidity (H + Al), hydrogen potential (pH), and physical attributes such as soil resistance to penetration and related to climate, such as minimum temperature.

Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis, Individual wood volume, Feature selection, Entisol quartzipsamment soil, Decision tree

 

4- MODELING ECOLOGICAL NICHE OF TREE SPECIES IN BRAZILIAN TROPICAL AREA

Mônica Canaan Carvalho, Lucas Rezende Gomide, Rubens Manoel dos Santos, José Roberto Soares Scolforo, Luís Marcelo Tavares de Carvalho, José Márcio de Mello

Abstract

Modeling of the ecological niche of vegetal species is useful for understanding the species-environment relationship, for prediction of responses to climate changes and for correct reforestation programs and establishment of plantation’s recommendation. The objective of this work was to establish a model for the distribution of four tree species (Casearia sylvestris, Copaifera langsdorffii, Croton floribundus and Tapirira guianensis), widely used in reforestation projects in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between environmental characteristics and the occurrence of species and tested the performance of Random Forest and Artificial Neural Networks as modeling methods. These methods were evaluated by their overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Kappa, true skill statistic and the area under the receiver operating curve. The results showed the species Casearia sylvestris, Copaifera langsdorffii and Tapirira guianensis widely occurring in the state of Minas Gerais, including a broad range of environmental variables. Croton floribundus had restricted occurrence in the southern state, showing narrow environmental variation. The resulting algorithms demonstrated greater performance when modeling restricted geographic and environmental species, as well as species occurring with high prevalence in data. The algorithm Random Forest performed better for distribution modeling of all species, although the results varied for each metric and species. The maps generated had acceptable metrics and are supported by and ecological information obtained from other sources, constituting a useful tool to understand the ecology and biogeography of the target species.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Phytogeography, Random Forest

 

5- LAMINAR INCLUSION IN SUGARCANE BAGASSE PARTICLEBOARD

Stefania Lima Oliveira, Ticyane Pereira Freire, Tamires Galvão Tavares Pereira, Lourival Marin Mendes, Rafael Farinassi Mendes

Abstract

The objective of this study is to assess the effect of the laminar inclusion on the physical and mechanical properties of sugarcane bagasse particleboard. We used the commercial panels of sugarcane bagasse produced in China. To evaluate the effect of the laminar inclusion was tested two wood species (Pinus and Eucalyptus) and two pressures (10 and 15 kgf.cm-2) along with a control (without laminar inclusion). The panels with laminar inclusion obtained improvements in the physical properties, with a significant reduction in the WA2h, WA24h and TS2h. There was a significant increase in the properties MOE and MOR parallel and Janka hardness, while the properties MOE and MOR perpendicular decreased significantly. The pinus and eucalyptus veneers inclusion resulted in similar results when added to the panel with a 10 kgf.cm-2 pressure. The use of 15 kgf.cm-2 pressure is not indicated for the pinus veneer inclusion in sugar cane bagasse panels. There was no effect of the pressure level when evaluating the eucalyptus veneer inclusion on the properties of the sugarcane bagasse panels.

Keywords: Lignocellulosic waste; Com-ply; Physical and mechanical properties

 

6- SOIL FERTILITY AFFECTS ELEMENTAL DISTRIBUTION IN NEEDLES OF THE CONIFER Araucaria angustifolia: A MICROANALYTICAL STUDY

Julierme Zimmer Barbosa, Valdeci Constantino, Flávio Zanette, Antonio Carlos Vargas Motta, Stephen Arthur Prior

Abstract

Araucaria angustifolia is a conifer species found in South American subtropical forests that comprises less than 3% of the native vegetation and little is known concerning the accumulation of nutritional elements in its needles. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to assess the elemental distribution in needles. Needles were selected from 28 month-old plants grown in a fertilization experiment supplied with: 1) N, P, and K; 2) N and P; and 3) N and K. In microanalysis, four types of specialized needle tissues (adaxial epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and abaxial epidermis) were evaluated for elemental composition (C, O, P, K, Ca, S and Al). When crystals were detected, the concentrations of 12 elements were determined (C, O, P, K, Ca, S, Al, Fe, Mg, Na, Si, and Cl). Under low soil P and K, these elements were found in low concentrations in the epidermis, mesophyll, and crystals. Under low soil P, Ca and K accumulated in the spongy mesophyll, while under low soil K only Ca accumulated in this tissue. In addition, low soil P or K availability favored the formation of crystals; crystals under low soil K availability had more Ca and Mg. Soil P and K availability affected the distribution of elements in needles of A. angustifolia, in that type of tissue and formation of crystals were key to the nutrient dynamics in needles.

Keywords: Endangered species; Ca oxalate crystals; X-ray spectroscopy; Scanning electron microscopy

 

7- SPATIALIZATION OF FRACTIONS OF ORGANIC MATTER IN SOIL IN AN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST, BRAZIL

Camila Santos da Silva, Marcos Gervasio Pereira, Rafael Coll Delgado, Shirlei Almeida Assunção

Abstract

Araucaria angustifolia is a conifer species found in South American subtropical forests that comprises less than 3% of the native vegetation and little is known concerning the accumulation of nutritional elements in its needles. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to assess the elemental distribution in needles. Needles were selected from 28 month-old plants grown in a fertilization experiment supplied with: 1) N, P, and K; 2) N and P; and 3) N and K. In microanalysis, four types of specialized needle tissues (adaxial epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and abaxial epidermis) were evaluated for elemental composition (C, O, P, K, Ca, S and Al). When crystals were detected, the concentrations of 12 elements were determined (C, O, P, K, Ca, S, Al, Fe, Mg, Na, Si, and Cl). Under low soil P and K, these elements were found in low concentrations in the epidermis, mesophyll, and crystals. Under low soil P, Ca and K accumulated in the spongy mesophyll, while under low soil K only Ca accumulated in this tissue. In addition, low soil P or K availability favored the formation of crystals; crystals under low soil K availability had more Ca and Mg. Soil P and K availability affected the distribution of elements in needles of A. angustifolia, in that type of tissue and formation of crystals were key to the nutrient dynamics in needles.

Keywords: Labile fraction; Humic substances; Geostatistics; Soil quality indicators

 

8- EFFECT OF EXTRACTIVES AND CARBONIZATION TEMPERATURE ON ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF WOOD WASTE IN AMAZON RAINFOREST

Jordão Cabral Moulin, João Rodrigo Coimbra Nobre, Jonnys Paz Castro, Paulo Fernando Trugilho, Marina Donária Chaves Arantes

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extractives soluble in hot water, besides final carbonization temperatures, on the gravimetric yield and properties of charcoal for waste of three native forest species from the Amazon region. Waste cuttings of Ipé, Grapia and Maçaranduba species, from the machine processing for joinery of a company in the State of Pará, were used. Carbonization was carried out in an adapted electric furnace with a heating rate of 1.67°C min-1 and final temperatures of 500, 600 and 700°C. The waste was carbonized fresh after extraction in hot water to remove extractives. Gravimetric yields were analyzed, as well as chemical features and high heating value. In the evaluation of the experiment, arranged in a factorial scheme with three factors (species x temperature x material with and without extraction), and Principal Component Analysis used too. The presence of extractives (soluble in hot water) from wood waste had little influence on the gravimetric yield and immediate chemical composition of charcoal; however, it showed a greater high heating value and lower contents of hydrogen and nitrogen. The increase in the final carbonization temperature reduced the gravimetric yield in charcoal, the content of volatile materials and hydrogen, with a higher content of fixed carbon, carbon and high heating value. The treatments with the best energy characteristics were obtained from Ipé and Maçaranduba charcoals with extractives produced at 600°C, in addition to Ipê and Maçaranduba charcoals with and without extractives obtained at 700°C.

Keywords: Biomass, PCA, Thermal decomposition, Energy

 

9- CLASSIFICATION OF THE INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF EUCALIPTUS USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES

Elizeu de Souza Lima, Zigomar Menezes de Souza, Rafael Montanari, Stanley Robson de Medeiros Oliveira, Lenon Henrique Lovera, Camila Viana Vieira Farhate

Abstract

Eucalyptus plantation has expanded considerably in Brazil, especially in regions where soils have low fertility, such as in Brazilian Cerrados. To achieve greater productivity, it is essential to know the needs of the soil and the right moment to correct it. Mathematical and computational models have been used as a promising alternative to help in this decision-making process. The aim of this study was to model the influence of climate and physico-chemical attributes in the development of Eucalyptus urograndis in Entisol quartzipsamment soil using the decision tree induction technique. To do so, we used 30 attributes, 29 of them are predictive and one is the target-attribute or response variable regarding the height of the eucalyptus. We defined four approaches to select these features: no selection, Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS), Chi-square test (χ2) and Wrapper. To classify the data, we used the decision tree induction technique available in the Weka software 3.6. This data mining technique allowed us to create a classification model for the initial development of eucalyptus. From this model, one can predict new cases in different production classes, in which the individual wood volume (IWV) and the diameter at breast height (DBH) are crucial features to predict the growth of Eucalyptus urograndis, in addition to the presence of chemical soil components such as: magnesium (Mg+2), phosphorus (P), aluminum (Al+3), potassium (K+), potential acidity (H + Al), hydrogen potential (pH), and physical attributes such as soil resistance to penetration and related to climate, such as minimum temperature.

Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; Individual wood volume; Feature selection; Entisol quartzipsamment soil; Decision tree

 

10- COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS AND CHARCOAL MADE FROM BABASSU NUTSHELL

Thiago de Paula Protásio, Mario Guimarães Junior, Seyedmohammad Mirmehdi, Paulo Fernando Trugilho, Alfredo Napoli, Kátia Monteiro Knovack

Abstract

In recent years, studies have examined the use of lignocellulosic wastes for energy generation. However, there is a lack of information on the combustibility of the residual biomass, especially the bark and charcoal of babassu nut. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to achieve the following objectives: to evaluate the combustion of the residual biomass from the babassu nut; to evaluate the combustion of charcoal produced from this biomass, considering different final carbonization temperatures; and to determine the effect of the final carbonization temperature on the thermal stability of charcoal and on its performance in combustion. Thermal analyses were performed in synthetic air. In order to evaluate the characteristics of charcoal combustion and fresh biomass, the ignition temperature (Ti), the burnout temperature (Tf), characteristic combustion index (S), ignition index (Di), time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate (tp), and ignition time (tig) were considered. The combustion of the babassu nutshell occurred in three phases and it was observed that this lignocellulosic material is suitable for the direct generation of heat. The increase in the final carbonization temperature caused an increase in the ignition temperature, as well as in the burnout temperature, the ignition time and the time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate. The results indicate that the increase in the carbonization temperature causes a decrease in combustion reactivity and, consequently, the charcoals produced at lower temperatures are easier to ignite and exhibit better performance in ignition.

Keywords: Alternative biomass, Renewable energy, Thermal analysis, Ignition